Timeline of bladder cancer

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The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of bladder cancer". The original page still exists at Timeline of bladder cancer. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of bladder cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
16th–17th Centuries The first operations targeting bladder tumor are performed in these centuries.[1]
18th Century It is already theorized that tobacco use might be related to cancer.[2]
19th Century The cytoscope develops. The first cystectomy for bladder cancer is performed.
20th Century A major discovery is the link between bladder cancer and exposure to β-Naphthylamine. Around mid–century, aromatic amines are found to be the most important carcinogens in occupational bladder cancer. This would prompt worldwide regulatory changes to the manufacture of rubber and dyestuffs.[3] Among medical advances, urine cytology emerges as a tool to detect recurrent bladder and urinary tract cancers.[4]
1950s Cigarette smoking is found to be etiologic for human bladder cancer.[2]
1970s Cigarette smoking is linked to bladder cancer risk. The first chemotherapy drug is released for bladder cancer.[4]
1980s Mitomycin chemotherapy is consolidated. Surgical advances improve bladder cancer survival. First successful combination chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer is achieved.[4]
1990s Surgical techniques consolidate. New chemotherapies emerge to treat bladder cancer.[4]
2000s New chemotherapies prove to extend survival against bladder cancer. CT scan improves bladder cancer detection.[4]
Recent years As of 2010, bladder cancer resulted in 170,000 deaths up from 114,000 in 1990 worldwide.[5] Current treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include surgery, intravesical therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy.[6] Today, the incidence of occupational bladder cancer has decreased in the Western World, but is still widely reported in less developed countries. A lack of adequate data on concurrent smoking history and other risk factors is a possible limitation of actual epidemiological studies.[3]

Visual data

Age–adjusted death rates from bladder cancer, by sex, in the United States, 1930–1958.

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1551 Scientific development Bladder tumors are mentioned first by Lacuna.[1]
1761 Scientific development Dr. John Hill reports a relationship between tobacco use and cancer.[2]
1854 Scientific development Inverted papilloma (a tumor that may occur in the bladder and other components of the urinary tract) is first described.[7]
1877 Medical development (device) German urologist Maximilian Nitze develops the cystoscope, a device used to perform endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra.[8]
1887 Medical development (treatment) The first cystectomy for bladder cancer is performed.[8] Cologne, Germany
1895 Scientific development Link between bladder cancer and environmental carcinogens is first postulated.[9]
1895 Scientific development German surgeon Ludwig Rehn, working at the Hoechst aniline factory near Frankfurt, reports 3 cases of bladder cancer in workers, labeling them aniline tumors. However, it would be hard to prove the association with the chemical at the time as chemical manufacturers begin using several other coal- and oil-based compounds.[3][2] Germany
1902 Organization The American Urological Association is founded.[10] Linthicum, Maryland, United States
1903 Medical development (treatment) Radium is first used to treat bladder tumors.[8] United States
1911 Scientific development Ferguson first first suggests association between Schistosomiasis and urinary bladder cancer.[11][2]
1929 Scientific development Researchers note that patients with tuberculosis have lower rates of cancer when examined at autopsy. This observation is among the first to link the possibility of bladder cancer treatment with BCG.[12]
1938 Scientific development Delaware-based German pathologist Wilhelm Hueper shows an increase in bladder tumors when β-Naphthylamine is administered orally to dogs. With his toxicology research funded by the chemical industry, Hueper would encounter significant resistance in publishing his findings.[3]
1939 Scientific development Researchers communicate a successful attempt to induce papillary vesical lesions of benign and malignant type of bladder cancer in female dogs receiving large doses of commercial β-Naphthylamine by mouth.[13] United States
1940 Scientific development Japanese scientists claim having induced bladder papillomatosis in rabbits and rats by means of subcutaneous injection of an oily solution of o–toluidine.[13]
1945 Medical development (diagnosis) Urine cytology (a test used to diagnose urinary tract cancers) is first described.[14]
1950 – 1954 Epidemiology Incidence rate for bladder cancer per 100,000 population in the United States is reported at 14.1 for males, and 4.4 for females, during the period.[2] United States
1950 – 1959 Scientific discovery It is found that cigarette smoking is etiologic for human bladder cancer.[2]
1952 Discovery Transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the bladder is first described.[15]
1954 Scientific development Study by Case and Holster on workers in the British rubber industry demonstrate that β-Naphthylamine accounts for a 200-fold increased risk of bladder cancer with a latency period of 11-25 years. Subsequently, regulatory bodies worldwide would start prohibiting the manufacture and use of the compound.[3] United Kingdom
1956 Medical development (treatment) Early bladder removal surgery is introduced. This include surgically removing the bladder (cystectomy) and surrounding tissue where cancer is most likely to spread.[16]
1970 – 1974 Epidemiology Incidence rate for bladder cancer per 100,000 population in the United States is reported at 23.7 for males, and 6.1 for females, during the period.[2] United States
1970 – 1975 Scientific development Studies in laboratory rats link saccharin with the development of bladder cancer, especially in male rats.[17]
1972 Scientific development Researchers demonstrate a significantly decreased incidence of bladder cancer since the manufacture of dyestuffs containing β-Naphthylamine was ceased.[3]
1974 Discovery Research ties sharp increase in bladder cancer deaths among British men to the rapid rise in cigarette smoking during prior decades.[4] United Kingdom
1978 Treatment United States FDA approves the first chemotherapy drug cisplatin for bladder cancer.[18] United States
1980–1985 Treatment Reconstructive bladder surgery is found to improve quality of life. Surgeons begin to offer a neobladder to select patients needing surgery (cystectomy) for bladder cancer. This procedure provides a functional replacement for the bladder using tissue fashioned from the small bowel that allows the passage of urine through the urethra.[4]
1982 Discovery Micropapillary bladder cancer (a rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma) is first described.[19]
1985 Treatment Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) is first described. MVAC is one of the most active chemotherapy regimens for bladder cancer.[20]
1985–1989 Medical development Researchers map out the nerves surrounding the bladder and prostate and develop a new surgical technique that spares key nerves involved in male sexual function, thus preserving it.[21]
1987 Treatment Implant treats bladder cancer without surgery. The procedure involves implanting radioactive sources into cancerous tumors within the bladder.[22] United States
1988 Scientific development Intravesical chemotherapy using mitomycin is found to reduce risk of bladder cancer's return.[23]
1990 Medical development (treatment) United States FDA approved the use of live bacterium, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for superficial bladder cancer. BCG immunotherapy helps reduce the risk of bladder cancer recurrence by stimulating an immune response that targets the bacteria as well as any bladder cancer cells.[24] United States
1997 Medical development (treatment) Introduction of combination therapy using both radiation and cisplatin chemotherapy together, is found to be a new treatment alternative for patients with advanced bladder cancer who are older or otherwise unable to undergo bladder surgery.[25]
2000 Medical development (treatment) New chemotherapy combination regimen using gemcitabine together with cisplatin is found to be comparably effective but has relatively fewer side effects than standard MVAC therapy.[26]
2002 Statistics Approximately 356,000 new bladder cancer cases worldwide are reported during the year.[27][28]
2003 Scientific development Research demonstrates that giving chemotherapy before bladder surgery improves survival for patients whose cancer has not spread significantly beyond the bladder, compared with surgery alone.[29]
2004 Epidemiology Report estimates that approximately 145,000 patients die from urinary bladder cancer annually worldwide.[28]
2009 Organization Bladder Cancer Canada is formed as a patient advocacy organization dedicated to bladder cancer issues.[30] Canada
2016 Scientific development Study suggests that alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment of the bladder, especially type I collagen, may contribute to bladder cancer progression.[31] Houston, Texas, United States
2016 Medical development New technology helps doctors detect cancerous tumors in the bladder that are invisible to the naked eye.[32] Murray, Utah, United States
2017 (September 7) Scientific development Researchers develop new risk-stratification tool able to estimate mortality in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) after cystectomy. [33][34]
2017 (October 12) Medical development Researchers, working with mice and rats, develop a way to successfully deliver nano-sized, platinum-based chemotherapy drugs to treat nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, a type of bladder cancer which is found in the lining of the organ and has not invaded deeper into bladder tissue.[35][36][37][38]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Patel, Sutchin R.; Moran, Michael E.; Nakada, Stephen Y. The History of Technologic Advancements in Urology. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Bryan, George T. (1983). "Pathogenesis of Human Urinary Bladder Cancer". Environmental Health Perspectives: 201–207. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Wanis, Michael; Hadjipavlou, Marios. "THE RISE AND FALL OF OCCUPATIONAL BLADDER CANCER IN THE WESTERN WORLD". THE JOURNAL OF UROLOGY. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "Timeline". Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  5. Lozano, R; et al. (15 December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  6. "Bladder cancer treatment". Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  7. Wood, JW; Casiano, RR (2012). "Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity". Am J Rhinol Allergy. 26: 157–63. PMC 3906506Freely accessible. PMID 22487294. doi:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3732. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "BLADDER CANCER". Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  9. "Guideline for the Management of Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: (Stages Ta, T1 and Tis: Update (2007)". Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  10. "History of the AUA". Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  11. "Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis". Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute. 24: 151–159. doi:10.1016/j.jnci.2012.08.002. 
  12. Fuge, O; Vasdev, N; Allchorne, P; Green, JS (2015). "Immunotherapy for bladder cancer". Res Rep Urol. 7: 65–79. PMC 4427258Freely accessible. PMID 26000263. doi:10.2147/RRU.S63447. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 BONSER, GEORGIANA M. (January 1946). "EXPERIMENTAL CANCER OF THE BLADDER". British Medical Bulletin: 379–381. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072830. 
  14. "Current perspectives in bladder cancer management". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 67: 435–448. doi:10.1111/ijcp.12075. 
  15. "BCG Immunotherapy for Transitional-Cell Carcinoma in Situ of the Bladder". Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  16. "A technique for radical total cystectomy". Cancer. 9: 585–595. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(195605/06)9:3<585::AID-CNCR2820090325>3.0.CO;2-Z. 
  17. "Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer". cancer.gov. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  18. "The "Accidental" Cure—Platinum-based Treatment for Cancer: The Discovery of Cisplatin". Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  19. "Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience". BMC Urology. 9. doi:10.1186/1471-2490-9-5. 
  20. "Everything Old Is New Again! Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32: 1868–1870. doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.55.4055. 
  21. Schlegel, PN; Walsh, PC. "Neuroanatomical approach to radical cystoprostatectomy with preservation of sexual function.". J Urol. 138: 1402–6. PMID 3682067. 
  22. "Implant treats bladder cancer without surgery". Gainesville Sun. 
  23. van der Meijden, AP; DeBruyne, FM. "Treatment schedule of intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin C in superficial bladder cancer: short-term courses or maintenance therapy.". Urology. 31: 26–9. PMID 3126592. 
  24. "Bladder Cancer". Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  25. "Radiotherapy with or without Chemotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer". New England Journal of Medicine. 366: 1477–1488. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1106106. 
  26. "Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Versus Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin in Advanced or Metastatic Bladder Cancer: Results of a Large, Randomized, Multinational, Multicenter, Phase III Stud" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  27. Ploeg, M; Aben, KK; Kiemeney, LA (2009). "The present and future burden of urinary bladder cancer in the world". World J Urol. 27: 289–93. PMC 2694323Freely accessible. PMID 19219610. doi:10.1007/s00345-009-0383-3. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 Ploeg, Martine; Aben, Katja K. H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. "The present and future burden of urinary bladder cancer in the world". World Journal of Urology. PMC 2694323Freely accessible. doi:10.1007/s00345-009-0383-3. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  29. "International Phase III Trial Assessing Neoadjuvant Cisplatin, Methotrexate, and Vinblastine Chemotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Long-Term Results of the BA06 30894 Trial". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 29: 2171–2177. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.32.3139. 
  30. "Bladder Cancer Canada". Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  31. "Bladder Cancer Progression Linked to Collagen Changes". Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  32. "New technology detects bladder cancer that even doctors can't see". Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  33. "New Tool Identifies Mortality Risk After Bladder Cancer Surgery". oncologynurseadvisor.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  34. "New tool IDs mortality risk after bladder cancer surgery". medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  35. "Experimental 'nano-chemo' particle to treat bladder cancer". sciencedaily.com. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  36. "Experimental nano-chemo particle to treat bladder cancer". europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  37. "Scientists develop experimental 'nano-chemo' particle to treat bladder cancer". medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  38. "Johns Hopkins Scientists Develop Experimental "Nano-Chemo" Particle to Treat Bladder Cancer". newswise.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 

Cancer, bladder Category:Bladder cancer