Timeline of bladder cancer
This is a timeline of bladder cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.
|18th Century||It is already theorized that tobacco use might be related to cancer.|
|19th Century||The cytoscope develops. The first cystectomy for bladder cancer is performed.|
|20th Century||A major discovery is the link between bladder cancer and exposure to β-Naphthylamine. Around mid–century, aromatic amines are found to be the most important carcinogens in occupational bladder cancer. This would prompt worldwide regulatory changes to the manufacture of rubber and dyestuffs. Among medical advances, urine cytology emerges as a tool to detect recurrent bladder and urinary tract cancers.|
|1950s||Cigarette smoking is found to be etiologic for human bladder cancer.|
|1970s||Cigarette smoking is linked to bladder cancer risk. The first chemotherapy drug is released for bladder cancer.|
|1980s||Mitomycin chemotherapy is consolidated. Surgical advances improve bladder cancer survival. First successful combination chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer is achieved.|
|1990s||Surgical techniques consolidate. New chemotherapies emerge to treat bladder cancer.|
|2000s||New chemotherapies prove to extend survival against bladder cancer. CT scan improves bladder cancer detection.|
|Recent years||As of 2010, bladder cancer resulted in 170,000 deaths up from 114,000 in 1990 worldwide. Current treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include surgery, intravesical therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Today, the incidence of occupational bladder cancer has decreased in the Western World, but is still widely reported in less developed countries. A lack of adequate data on concurrent smoking history and other risk factors is a possible limitation of actual epidemiological studies.|
|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1761||Scientific development||Dr. John Hill reports a relationship between tobacco use and cancer.|
|1854||Scientific development||Inverted papilloma (a tumor that may occur in the bladder and other components of the urinary tract) is first described.|
|1877||Medical development (device)||German urologist Maximilian Nitze develops the cystoscope, a device used to perform endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra.|
|1887||Medical development (treatment)||The first cystectomy for bladder cancer is performed.||Cologne, Germany|
|1895||Scientific development||Link between bladder cancer and environmental carcinogens is first postulated.|
|1895||Scientific development||German surgeon Ludwig Rehn, working at the Hoechst aniline factory near Frankfurt, reports 3 cases of bladder cancer in workers, labeling them aniline tumors. However, it would be hard to prove the association with the chemical at the time as chemical manufacturers begin using several other coal- and oil-based compounds.||Germany|
|1902||Organization||The American Urological Association is founded.||Linthicum, Maryland, United States|
|1903||Medical development (treatment)||Radium is first used to treat bladder tumors.||United States|
|1911||Scientific development||Ferguson first first suggests association between Schistosomiasis and urinary bladder cancer.|
|1929||Scientific development||Researchers note that patients with tuberculosis have lower rates of cancer when examined at autopsy. This observation is among the first to link the possibility of bladder cancer treatment with BCG.|
|1938||Scientific development||Delaware-based German pathologist Wilhelm Hueper shows an increase in bladder tumors when β-Naphthylamine is administered orally to dogs. With his toxicology research funded by the chemical industry, Hueper would encounter significant resistance in publishing his findings.|
|1939||Scientific development||Researchers communicate a successful attempt to induce papillary vesical lesions of benign and malignant type of bladder cancer in female dogs receiving large doses of commercial β-Naphthylamine by mouth.||United States|
|1940||Scientific development||Japanese scientists claim having induced bladder papillomatosis in rabbits and rats by means of subcutaneous injection of an oily solution of o–toluidine.|
|1945||Medical development (diagnosis)||Urine cytology (a test used to diagnose urinary tract cancers) is first described.|
|1950 – 1954||Epidemiology||Incidence rate for bladder cancer per 100,000 population in the United States is reported at 14.1 for males, and 4.4 for females, during the period.||United States|
|1950 – 1959||Scientific discovery||It is found that cigarette smoking is etiologic for human bladder cancer.|
|1952||Discovery||Transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the bladder is first described.|
|1954||Scientific development||Study by Case and Holster on workers in the British rubber industry demonstrate that β-Naphthylamine accounts for a 200-fold increased risk of bladder cancer with a latency period of 11-25 years. Subsequently, regulatory bodies worldwide would start prohibiting the manufacture and use of the compound.||United Kingdom|
|1956||Medical development (treatment)||Early bladder removal surgery is introduced. This include surgically removing the bladder (cystectomy) and surrounding tissue where cancer is most likely to spread.|
|1970 – 1974||Epidemiology||Incidence rate for bladder cancer per 100,000 population in the United States is reported at 23.7 for males, and 6.1 for females, during the period.||United States|
|1970 – 1975||Scientific development||Studies in laboratory rats link saccharin with the development of bladder cancer, especially in male rats.|
|1972||Scientific development||Researchers demonstrate a significantly decreased incidence of bladder cancer since the manufacture of dyestuffs containing β-Naphthylamine was ceased.|
|1974||Discovery||Research ties sharp increase in bladder cancer deaths among British men to the rapid rise in cigarette smoking during prior decades.||United Kingdom|
|1978||Treatment||United States FDA approves the first chemotherapy drug cisplatin for bladder cancer.||United States|
|1980–1985||Treatment||Reconstructive bladder surgery is found to improve quality of life. Surgeons begin to offer a neobladder to select patients needing surgery (cystectomy) for bladder cancer. This procedure provides a functional replacement for the bladder using tissue fashioned from the small bowel that allows the passage of urine through the urethra.|
|1982||Discovery||Micropapillary bladder cancer (a rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma) is first described.|
|1985||Treatment||Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) is first described. MVAC is one of the most active chemotherapy regimens for bladder cancer.|
|1985–1989||Medical development||Researchers map out the nerves surrounding the bladder and prostate and develop a new surgical technique that spares key nerves involved in male sexual function, thus preserving it.|
|1987||Treatment||Implant treats bladder cancer without surgery. The procedure involves implanting radioactive sources into cancerous tumors within the bladder.||United States|
|1988||Scientific development||Intravesical chemotherapy using mitomycin is found to reduce risk of bladder cancer's return.|
|1990||Medical development (treatment)||United States FDA approved the use of live bacterium, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for superficial bladder cancer. BCG immunotherapy helps reduce the risk of bladder cancer recurrence by stimulating an immune response that targets the bacteria as well as any bladder cancer cells.||United States|
|1997||Medical development (treatment)||Introduction of combination therapy using both radiation and cisplatin chemotherapy together, is found to be a new treatment alternative for patients with advanced bladder cancer who are older or otherwise unable to undergo bladder surgery.|
|2000||Medical development (treatment)||New chemotherapy combination regimen using gemcitabine together with cisplatin is found to be comparably effective but has relatively fewer side effects than standard MVAC therapy.|
|2002||Statistics||Approximately 356,000 new bladder cancer cases worldwide are reported during the year.|
|2003||Scientific development||Research demonstrates that giving chemotherapy before bladder surgery improves survival for patients whose cancer has not spread significantly beyond the bladder, compared with surgery alone.|
|2004||Epidemiology||Report estimates that approximately 145,000 patients die from urinary bladder cancer annually worldwide.|
|2009||Organization||Bladder Cancer Canada is formed as a patient advocacy organization dedicated to bladder cancer issues.||Canada|
|2016||Scientific development||Study suggests that alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment of the bladder, especially type I collagen, may contribute to bladder cancer progression.||Houston, Texas, United States|
|2016||Medical development||New technology helps doctors detect cancerous tumors in the bladder that are invisible to the naked eye.||Murray, Utah, United States|
|2017 (September 7)||Scientific development||Researchers develop new risk-stratification tool able to estimate mortality in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) after cystectomy. |
|2017 (October 12)||Medical development||Researchers, working with mice and rats, develop a way to successfully deliver nano-sized, platinum-based chemotherapy drugs to treat nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, a type of bladder cancer which is found in the lining of the organ and has not invaded deeper into bladder tissue.|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
What the timeline is still missing
Timeline update strategy
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