Timeline of lung cancer

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This is a timeline of lung cancer, describing especially major discoveries, advances in treatment and major organizations.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
19th century Lung cancer is very uncommon before the 20th century. Malignant lung tumors make up only about 1% of all cancers on records.[1]
1900s Lung cancer incidence start to rise early in the 20th century, though very few cases are reported in the medical literature.[1][2]
1930s onward Lung cancer rates start to increase exponentially (peak at 100/100,000 for men in the late 1980s and currently a plateau at 55/100,000 for women) as a consequence massive consumption of cigarettes worldwide. Rates in never smokers remain stable (~10 to 20/100,000).
1960s onward Rates of adenocarcinoma of the lung start to rise relative to other types of lung cancer, partly due to the introduction of cigarette filters.[3]
1970s Successful chemotherapy regimens are developed for lung cancer.[4]
1990s Several new chemotherapy drugs for non-small cell lung cancer are developed, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine.[5]
2000s onward Today, lung cancer is a top cause of death among both men and women at a worldwide level, and ranks high in both incidence and mortality. Smoking is still considered to be the principal cause of lung cancer.[6][7]

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1761 Discovery Lung cancer is first recognized as a disease.[8]
1810 Development Different aspects of lung cancer are described.[8]
1870–1879 Crisis Miners working at mines rich in radon gas, are found to develop a disproportionate amount of lung disease, eventually recognized as lung cancer.[9] Germany
1899–1911 Report Diagnosing lung cancer in living patients are rare. Cases identified in autopsies are very uncommon (i.e., fewer than 1/1000).[8]
1929 Discovery German physician Fritz Lickint publishes a paper showing that lung cancer patients are particularly likely to be smokers.[1]
1933 Treatment The first successful pneumonectomy for lung cancer is performed.[10]
1933 Organization The Union for International Cancer Control is founded as an NGO. Its purpose is to help the global health community accelerate the fight against cancer.[11] Geneva, Switzerland (Serves worldwide)
1958 Treatment Fluorouracil is developed as a chemotherapy drug for treating many cancers, including lung cancer.[12]
1959–1972 Study Cancer Prevention Study I begins. 1 million men and women are recruited. The study will demonstrate that sharp increase in lung cancer death rates is related to cigarette smoking[13] United States
1960–1969 Discovery Radon is confirmed to be a cause of lung cancer.[14]
1964 The Surgeon General of the United States recommends the population not to smoke.[15] United States
1965 Organization The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is founded as an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations. Its role is to conduct and coordinate research into the causes of cancer.[16] Lyon, France
1969 Report New edition of a handbook changes radically from the previous one. The role of cigarette smoking is described in detail. Air pollution is mentioned. Difference in incidence between urban and rural areas is acknowledged.[1]
1986 Discovery Passive smoking is formally declared a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A number of cities around the world start to ban indoor smoking in the years that follow.[5]
1987 Discovery Researchers discover that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the growth and spread of non-small-cell lung carcinoma.[5]
1990–1992 Treatment Two studies show that combining chemotherapy and radiation prolongs survival for non-small cell lung cancer. This treatment approach soon becomes standard.[5]
1993 Treatment Researchers demonstrate simultaneous radiation and chemotherapy dramatically improves the effectiveness of treatment for patients with early-stage small-cell carcinoma, compared to starting radiation later in the course of treatment.[5]
1995 Treatment An analysis of data from more than 50 clinical trials affirms benefits of chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, concluding that cisplatin chemotherapy, along with surgery, radiation therapy or supportive care, substantially extends survival.[5]
1995 Organization Lung Cancer Alliance is founded as an NGO. Its stated purpose is to promote lung cancer awareness, reduce lung cancer mortality and end the stigma associated with lung cancer.[11] Washington D.C., United States
1996 Treatment Topotecan is approved as second round of treatment for small-cell lung carcinoma.[5]
1999 Discovery Cranial radiation is found to reduce risk of small-cell carcinoma spreading to the brain.[5]
1999 Discovery Study finds that twice-daily radiation to the chest, together with chemotherapy, prolongs survival against small cell lung carcinoma, compared with once-daily radiation and chemotherapy.[5]
2000 Discovery The Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study demonstrates that household radon exposure is associated with increased risk of lung cancer.[5] United States
2001 Organization The Global Lung Cancer Coalition (GLCC) is established. GLCC aims to address the following issues: aims to address the following issues: placing lung cancer on the global healthcare agenda, changing public perceptions and lessen the stigma of lung cancer, empowering lung cancer patients to take an active role in their care, having impact in legislative or regulatory policies to optimize treatment and care.[11] It comprises 28 non-government patient organizations from Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States
2003 Treatment FDA approves gefitinib for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma.[17] United States
2005 Policy Bhutan becomes the first country to impose nationwide ban on the sale of tobacco products.[18] Bhutan
2006 Organization Women Against Lung Cancer in Europe is founded as nonprofit organization, with aims at supporting and helping lung cancer patients and their families and circulating accurate, correct and updated information about the disease in terms of prevention, diagnosis and therapy.[11] Italy (active at national and international level)
2007 Organization Lung Cancer Foundation of America (LCFA) is established with aims at improving survival against lung cancer through the funding on research.[11][19] Marina Del Rey, California, United States
2008 Policy Indian government bans smoking in public.[20] India
2010 Organization Lungevity Foundation is established as a nonprofit organization. It funds research into early detection and treatment of lung cancer.[11][21] United States
2010 Organization Global Resource For Advancing Cancer Education (GRACE) is founded. Its purpose is to provide expert-mediated information on current and emerging cancer management options in order to empower patients, caregivers, and health professionals to become direct partners in cancer care.[22] Seattle, Washington, United States
2012 Report According to the US National Lung Association, deaths due to lung cancer increase by about 3.5% in the period 1999–2012.[6]
2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies air pollutants as leading causes of lung cancer.[23] Lyon, France
2015 Report Lung cancer surpasses breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths for women in rich countries.[24]
2016 Discovery Scientists discover drug combination that slows cell growth in a type of non small cell lung cancer, using trametinib and AZD2014. The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Witschi, H (November 2001). "A Short History of Lung Cancer". Toxicological Sciences. 64: 4–6. PMID 11606795. doi:10.1093/toxsci/64.1.4. 
  2. Adler, I (1912). Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company. OCLC 14783544. OL 24396062M. , cited in Spiro SG, Silvestri GA (2005). "One hundred years of lung cancer". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 172 (5): 523–529. PMID 15961694. doi:10.1164/rccm.200504-531OE. 
  3. Charloux A, Quoix E, Wolkove N, et al. (February 1997). "The increasing incidence of lung adenocarcinoma: reality or artefact? A review of the epidemiology of lung adenocarcinoma". International Journal of Epidemiology. 26 (1): 14–23. PMID 9126499. doi:10.1093/ije/26.1.14. 
  4. Cohen, MH; Creaven, PJ; Fossieck, BE; et al. (1977). "Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma.". Cancer Treat Rep. 61: 349–54. PMID 194691. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 "Progress & Timeline". Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Lung Cancer: Signs, Symptoms, Types & Treatment". Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  7. World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.1. ISBN 9283204298. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Yang, P (2011). "Lung Cancer in Never Smokers". Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 32: 10–21. PMC 3404817Freely accessible. PMID 21500120. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1272865. 
  9. Greenberg, M; Selikoff IJ (February 1993). "Lung cancer in the Schneeberg mines: a reappraisal of the data reported by Harting and Hesse in 1879". Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 37 (1): 5–14. PMID 8460878. doi:10.1093/annhyg/37.1.5. 
  10. Horn, L; Johnson DH (July 2008). "Evarts A. Graham and the first pneumonectomy for lung cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 26 (19): 3268–3275. PMID 18591561. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.16.8260. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 "IASLC". Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  12. "Fifty Years of Milestones in Cancer Research". Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  13. "History of the Cancer Prevention Studies". Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  14. Samet, JM (2011). "Radiation and cancer risk: a continuing challenge for epidemiologists". Environ Health. 10 Suppl 1: S4. PMC 3073196Freely accessible. PMID 21489214. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-S1-S4. 
  15. "Surgeon General of the United States" (PDF). Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  16. "IARC" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  17. "FDA approves targeted therapy for first-line treatment of patients with a type of metastatic lung cancer". Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  18. "Bhutan's smokers face public ban". Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  19. "Lung Cancer Foundation of America". Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  20. "Indian ban on smoking in public". Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  21. "Lungevity". Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  22. "GRACE". Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  23. "Air pollution causes lung cancer, warns World Health Organisation". Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  24. "Lung cancer now top cancer killer for women in rich nations". Retrieved 28 August 2016. 

Category:Lung cancer Category:Health-related timelines Category:Medicine timelines