Timeline of fats
This is a timeline of fats.
- 1 Sample questions
- 2 Big picture
- 3 Numerical and visual data
- 4 Full timeline
- 5 Meta information on the timeline
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
- Scientific development
- What are some of the increasing regulations having been imposed across the world on the use of fats in food products?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
- What are some notable or illustrative publications on the topic of fats?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature".
- What are some recommendations on the use of fats expressed by competitive entities?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Recommendation".
- Program launch
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|20th century||Dietary fat is recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the century. Proteins and carbohydrates are known to be indispensable dietary components by the first decade. During the first half of the century, higher-fat milk and dairy products were more costly. Lipases and colipases are isolated and characterized.|
|1940s||Concern over the health impacts of trans fats first emerge around this time.|
|1950s||Research on trans fatty acids begin in the 1950s. "By the late 1950s scientists had demonstrated a clear link between the intake of saturated fat and heart disease." "It’s been known since the 1950s that eating a lot of saturated fats is associated with heart attacks and poor cardiovascular health. " "In the late ‘50s, health advocates proposed reducing saturated fats, such as in butter and beef, from our diets, which propelled the use of margarine instead, a trend that snowballed in the 1980s."|
|1980s||An association between high intake of saturated fat and increased risk of heart disease is firmly established.|
|1990s||Evidence emerges indicating that trans fats carry a higher risk for heart disease than saturated fats. Several studies conducted in this decade show a connection between trans fat and increased levels of bad cholesterol.|
|2000s||In the early decade, health agencies in various countries worldwide recognize the need to introduce regulations controlling the amount of trans fats used in manufactured foods.|
Numerical and visual data
The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of October 6, 2021.
|Year||"trans fat"||"saturated fat"||"fatty acid"||"triglyceride"|
Google Ngram Viewer
|1551||Scientific development||Adipose tissue – more specifically brown adipose tissue– is first identified by Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner.|
|1769||Scientific development||François Poulletier de la Salle first identifies cholesterol in solid form in gallstones.|
|1770s||Reports from this time indicate that fish liver oils are used for the treatment of rickets, osteomalacia, general malnutrition, and eye conditions, thus linking, for the first time, fish liver oils and the factor termed “fat-soluble A.”|
|1779||Scientific development||Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovers that glycerol could be obtained from olive oil by heating it with litharge (lead monoxide). Along with fatty acids, glycerol is one of the two main components of a fat molecule.||Sweden|
|1791||Scientific development||Swiss scientist Jean Senebier reports in the Encyclopédie méthodique, Physiologie végétale a classification of oils. They are separated into essential and greasy oils.||Switzerland|
|1813||Scientific development||The concept of fatty acid (acide gras) is introduced by Michel Eugène Chevreul, though he initially uses some variant terms: graisse acide and acide huileux ("acid fat" and "oily acid").|
|1815||Scientific development||French chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul demonstrates the chemical nature of fats and oils. He also names the compound "cholesterine".||France|
|1815||Scientific development||Henri Braconnot classifies lipids (graisses) in two categories, suifs (solid greases or tallow) and huiles (fluid oils).|
|1823||Scientific development||French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul develops a more detailed classification of lipids, including oils, greases, tallow, waxes, resins, balsams and volatile oils (or essential oils).||France|
|1827||Scientific development||William Prout recognizes fat ("oily" alimentary matters), along with protein ("albuminous") and carbohydrate ("saccharine"), as an important nutrient for humans and animals.|
|1844||Scientific development||The first synthetic triglyceride is reported by Théophile-Jules Pelouze, who manages to produce tributyrin by treating butyric acid with glycerin in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid.|
|1847||Scientific development||French pharmacist Theodore Nicolas Gobley discovers phospholipids in mammalian brain and hen egg, called by him as "lecithins".||France|
|1849||Scientific development||French physiologist Claude Bernard reports that pancreatic juice is involved in the breakdown of fat to glycerine and fatty acids for subsequent absorption.||France|
|1854||Scientific development||Triacetin is first prepared by French chemist Marcellin Berthelot.|
|1856||Scientific development||German pathologist Rudolf Virchow first describes lipid accumulation in arterial walls.||Germany|
|1869||Scientific development||French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès invents the margarine. In the same year, he wins a prize offered by Napoleon III for a satisfactory butter substitute.||France|
|1869||Scientific development||The word carbohydrate is first used.|
|1890||Scientific development||It is written that “fat stands between the two great nutrients, proteids [proteins] on the one hand and carbohydrates on the other, and we find that we can indulge in considerable latitude as to its use. When we wish to get our food in a more condensed form, we can use fats freely.”|
|1901||Scientific development||German chemist Wilhelm Normann experiments with hydrogenation catalysts and successfully induces the hydrogenation of liquid fat, producing semisolid fat, which came to be known as trans fat.||Germany|
|1903||Scientific development||German chemist Wilhelm Normann patents the hydrogenation of liquid oils.||Germany|
|1905||Scientific development||Pekelharing observes that mice could not grow optimally while consuming only a mixture of purified fat, carbohydrate, and protein.|
|1911||Fat consumption||The first food product developed that contains trans fat is Crisco vegetable shortening, introduced by Procter & Gamble.||United States|
|1912||Scientific development||Jacob Rosenbloom and William J. Gies propose the substitution of "lipoid" by "lipin".|
|1912||Scientific development||American biochemist Elmer McCollum at the University of Wisconsin begins using rats instead of humans in his experiments rather than cows and sheep. He finds the first fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin A, and discovers that rats are healthier when they are fed butter rather than lard, as butter contains more Vitamin A.||United States|
|1913||Scientific development||A “fat-soluble A” factor necessary to support life is identified. This factor is thought to cure xerophthalmia and rickets.|
|1920||Scientific development||Bloor introduces a new classification for "lipoids": simple lipoids (greases and waxes), compound lipoids (phospholipoids and glycolipoids), and the derived lipoids (fatty acids, alcohols, sterols).|
|1923||Scientific development||The word lipide, which stems etymologically from Greek λίπος, lipos 'fat', is introduced by French pharmacologist Gabriel Bertrand.|
|1929||Scientific development||George and Mildred Burr report that dietary fatty acid is required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They conclude that fatty acids are essential nutrients and show that linoleic acid preventa the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmise that other unsaturated fatty acids are essential and subsequently demonstrate that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid.||United States|
|1947||Literature||English chemist Thomas Percy Hilditch publishesThe chemical constitution of natural fats, which would become famous. Hilditch claims that “unanimity has not yet been reached in the terminology to be adopted in classifying the various types of naturally occurring compounds in which fatty acids are present … even a collective title for the whole group is not completely settled“.||United Kingdom|
|1950||Scientific development||Genetically obese mice are first described.|
|1950–1970||In 1950, the food fat marketed in the United States is split approximately equally between animal fats (lard, tallow and butter) and edible vegetable oils. By 1970, edible vegetable oils would account for three-fourths of the total and animal fats only one-fourth.||United States|
|1956||Scientific development||French physician Jean Vague becomes the first to show the importance of fat distribution in relation to various diseases, describing what he terms ‘android’ and ‘gynoid’ types of obesity.||France|
|1957||Scientific development||Kummerow and colleagues find that lipid extracts of tissue specimens from 24 human subjects who died of heart disease contain ≤12.2% trans fatty acids in their adipose tissue, 14.4% in the liver, 9.3% in heart tissue, 8.8% in aortic tissue, and 8.8% in atheroma.|
|1964||Scientific development||Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen share the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning some of the mechanisms and methods of regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.|
|1975||Policy||Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling start taking effect in the United States. Foods are labeled on the basis of total, saturated (lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids), and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content. These standards are established based on the observed association between saturated fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.||United States|
|1976||Scientific development||The Nurses' Health Study is incepted as a cohort study following 120,000 female nurses. The researchers would analyze data from 900 coronary events from the study's population during 14 years of followup, and would determine that a nurse's coronary artery disease (CAD) risk roughly doubled (relative risk of 1.93, confidence interval: 1.43 to 2.61) for each 2% increase in trans fat calories consumed (instead of carbohydrate calories). By contrast, for each 5% increase in saturated fat calories (instead of carbohydrate calories) there was a 17% increase in risk (relative risk of 1.17, CI: 0.97 to 1.41). The replacement of saturated fat or trans unsaturated fat by cis (unhydrogenated) unsaturated fats is associated with larger reductions in risk than an isocaloric replacement by carbohydrates. The researchers would also report on the benefits of reducing trans fat consumption. Replacing 2% of food energy from trans fat with non-trans unsaturated fats more than halves the risk of CAD (53%). By comparison, replacing a larger 5% of food energy from saturated fat with non-trans unsaturated fats reduces the risk of CAD by 43%. This study provides the major evidence for the effect of trans fat on coronary artery disease.||United States|
|1976||Scientific development||A summary of the lipid hypothesis describes it as: "measures used to lower the plasma lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia will lead to reductions in new events of coronary heart disease".|
|1980||The United States Department of Agriculture and the United States Department of Health and Human Services jointly release the first Dietary Guidelines for Americans. These reports emphasize a leading harmful role of saturated fats.||United States|
|1983||Scientific development||Researchers show that the concentration of trans 18:1 and 16:1 fatty acids is 6.8% higher in the adipose tissue of individuals who died of ischemic heart disease compared with individuals who died of other causes.|
|1984||The United Kingdom issues dietary guidelines similar to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued in 1980. Both guidelines recommend reducing overall fat consumption to 30% of total calories, and saturated fat to no more than 10% of calories. These values would remain essentially unchanged in subsequent iterations.||United Kingdom|
|1986||McDonald's replaces the saturated fats in some of its products with partially hydrogenated oils, the major source of trans fats.|
|1987||Recommendation||The report of National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panels suggests the total blood cholesterol level should be: < 200 mg/dL normal blood cholesterol, 200–239 mg/dL borderline-high, > 240 mg/dL high cholesterol.|
|1990||Policy||The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 becomes effective in the United States. It focuses on saturated fat (redefined as all saturated fatty acids) and calls for it to be labeled based on grams per serving and percentage of total energy. The labeling of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids is deemed optional. These standards are based on the association between saturated fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, but also on observed associations with certain forms of cancer, diabetes, and other diseases.||United States|
|1990||Scientific development||Mensink and Katan demonstrate the plasma cholesterol-raising effect of industrially produced trans-octadecenoic acids in human volunteers.|
|1990||Scientific development||A Dutch study reports that the trans fatty acids do have an adverse effect on serum cholesterol.||Netherlands|
|1990||Scientific development||An Institute of Medicine report determines that trans fats have "no deleterious effects" on human health.||United States|
|1991||Recommendation||The U.K. Committee on Medical Aspects of Health (COMA) recommends that trans fatty acids be limited to 2% of the caloric (energy) intake.||United Kingdom|
|1993||Recommendation||Health advocacy groups start calling for fast food chains to stop frying with partially hydrogenated oil.|
|1993||Policy||The United States FDA requires that saturated fat and cholesterol be listed on food labels.||United States|
|1994||Statistics||A study estimates that over 30,000 cardiac deaths per year in the United States are attributable to the consumption of trans fats.|
|1996||Literature||F. D Gunstone publishes Fatty acid and lipid chemistry.|
|1997||Statistics||The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that fat consumption by humans in the United States can exceed 100 g/day.||United States|
|1998||Literature||Caroline M. Pond publishes The Fats of Life.|
|2000||Statistics||The global consumption of oils and fats ia 116.4 million tons. The largest volumes are for soybean oil (26.4 mt), palm oil (22.8 mt), rape seed oil (14.5 mt) and sunflower oil (9.4 mt).||Worldwide|
|2001||Scientific development||One study finds that risk of diabetes is higher for those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption.|
|2002||Recommendation||The Institute of Medicine of the [[w:National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine||National Academies]] publishes a report recommending that the consumption of trans fatty acids be as low as possible.|
|2003||Recommendation||A report by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommends limiting the saturated fatty acids to less than 10% of daily energy intake and less than 7% for high-risk groups.|
|2003||Scientific development||A meta-analysis finds a significant positive relationship between saturated fat and breast cancer.|
|2003||Scientific development||A randomized crossover study comparing the effect of eating a meal on blood lipids of (relatively) cis and trans-fat-rich meals shows that cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) is 28% higher after the trans meal than after the cis meal and that lipoprotein concentrations are enriched in apolipoprotein(a) after the trans meals.|
|2003||Scientific development||A study published in Archives of Neurology suggests that the intake of both trans fats and saturated fats promotes the development of Alzheimer disease.|
|2003||Policy||Denmark pioneers the banning of industrially-produced trans fats in food.||Denmark|
|2004||Scientific development||A review concludes that "no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified" and recommends that the influence of varying saturated fatty acid intakes against a background of different individual lifestyles and genetic backgrounds should be the focus in future studies.|
|2004||Recommendation||The European Food Safety Authority produces a scientific opinion on trans fatty acids, surmising that "higher intakes of TFA may increase risk for coronary heart disease.|
|2004||Literature||F. D. Gunstone publishes The Chemistry of Oils and Fats: Sources, Composition, Properties, and Uses.|
|2004–2005||Scientific development||An analysis of samples of McDonald's French fries collected finds that fries served in New York City contain twice as much trans fat as in Hungary, and 28 times as much as in Denmark, where trans fats are restricted. For Kentucky Fried Chicken products, the pattern is reversed: the Hungarian product containing twice the trans fat of the New York product. Even within the United States, there is variation, with fries in New York containing 30% more trans fat than those from Atlanta.|
|2006 (January 1)||Policy||The first direct regulation of trans fat by the United States FDA is a requirement that it be labeled in amounts above 0.5g per serving, which takes effect on January 1.||United States|
|2006||Research||A study indicates that the intake of saturated fat has a negative effect on the mineral density of bones. The study suggests that men may be particularly vulnerable.|
|2006||Policy||New York City passes a law banning artificial trans fats in all restaurant foods.||United States|
|2006||Policy||Argentina starts requiring trans fat content labeling.||Argentina|
|2007||Scientific development||A study funded by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board claims that replacing natural palm oil by other interesterified or partial hydrogenated fats cause adverse health effects, such as higher LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose levels. However, these effects could be attributed to the higher percentage of saturated acids in the IE and partially hydrogenated fats, rather than to the IE process itself.|
|2007||Scientific development||A study finds that each 2% increase in the intake of energy from trans unsaturated fats, as opposed to that from carbohydrates, is associated with a 73% greater risk of ovulatory infertility.|
|2007||Program launch||The American Heart Association launches its "Face the Fats" campaign to help educate the public about the negative effects of trans fats.||United States|
|2008||Policy||Switzerland bans trans fats.||Switzerland|
|2008||Policy||Calgary becomes the first city in Canada to ban trans fats from restaurants and fast-food chains.||Canada|
|2009||Literature||Frank Gunstone publishes Oils and Fats in the Food Industry.|
|2010||Recommendation||A conference of the American Dietetic Association takes place, at which concerns are expressed that a blanket recommendation to avoid saturated fats could drive people to also reduce the amount of polyunsaturated fats, which may have health benefits, and/or replace fats by refined carbohydrates — which carry a high risk of obesity and heart disease.||United States|
|2010||Statistics||According to the FDA, the average American consumes 5.8 grams of trans fat per day (2.6% of energy intake).||United States|
|2012||Recommendation||The Conseil Supérieur de la Santé in Belgium publishes a science-policy advisory report on industrially produced trans fatty acids that focuses on the general population. Its recommendation to the legislature is to prohibit more than 2 g of trans fatty acids per 100 g of fat in food products.||Belgium|
|2012||Scientific development||An observational analysis of subjects of an earlier study finds a strong relation between dietary trans fat acids and self-reported behavioral aggression and irritability, suggesting but not establishing causality.|
|2013||Scientific development||A team of Dutch scientists confidently write that "the detrimental effects of industrial trans fatty acids on heart health are beyond dispute".||Netherlands|
|2014||Policy||It becomes obligatory in Israel to mark food products with more than 2% (by weight) fat.||Israel|
|2014||Policy||From December, all food products produced in the European Union are legally required to indicate the specific vegetable oil used in their manufacture, following the introduction of the Food Information to Consumers Regulation.||European Union|
|2015||Recommendation||The United States Department of Agriculture Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) recommends that Americans eat as little dietary cholesterol as possible, because most foods that are rich in cholesterol are also high in saturated fat and thereby may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.||United States|
|2015||Scientific development||According to a study, trans fats are one of several components of Western pattern diets which promote acne, along with carbohydrates with high glycemic load such as refined sugars or refined starches, milk and dairy products, and saturated fats, while omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce acne, are deficient in Western pattern diets.|
|2015||Scientific development||A study argues that "greater dietary trans fatty acid consumption is linked to worse word memory in adults during years of high productivity, adults age <45".|
|2017||Scientific development||A review by the American Heart Association estimates that replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat in the American diet could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 30%.||United States|
|2017||Policy||Health Canada announces complete ban of trans fats in the country.||Canada|
|2018||Program launch||The World Health Organization launches a plan to eliminate trans fat from the global food supply. They estimate that trans fat leads to more than 500,000 deaths from cardiovascular disease yearly.|
|2018||Statistics||The 2018 Dutch Nutrition Survey reports that in this year, trans fatty acids only provided ∼0.3% of the daily energy requirement, as opposed to 5–10% several decades ago.|
|2018||Literature||Vinood B. Patel publishes The Molecular Nutrition of Fats, which presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of fats by assessing their dietary components, their structural and metabolic effects on the cell, and their role in health and disease.|
|2019||Policy||The Ministry of Health of Singapore announces that partially-hydrogenated oils (PHOs) will be banned.||Singapore|
|2010 (April 15)||Recommendation||A British Medical Journal editorial calls for trans fats to be "virtually eliminated in the United Kingdom by next year".||United Kingdom|
|2016||Literature||Michelle Phillipov publishes Fats: A Global History.|
|2020||Policy||The Saudi Minister of Health announces the ban of trans fat in all food products in the country due to their health risks.||Saudi Arabia|
|2020 (August 19)||Policy||The President of Romania promulgates a law that limits trans fats to 2 grams per every 100 grams of fat, max. The food producers not conforming would be fined with a sum ranging between 10,000 and 30,000 lei.||Romania|
|2021||Scientific development||A review finds that diets high in saturated fat are associated with higher mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease.|
|2021||Scientific development||Foods in the EU intended for consumers are required to contain less than 2g of industrial trans fat per 100g of fat.|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
Feedback and comments
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
What the timeline is still missing
Timeline update strategy
- Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong (January 2015). "Discovery of essential fatty acids". Journal of Lipid Research. 56 (1): 11–21. doi:10.1194/jlr.R055095.
- Lichtenstein, Alice H. (27 April 2009). "Dietary Fat: A History". Nutrition Reviews. 57 (1): 11–14. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1999.tb01770.x.
- "Trans fat | food product". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
- Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A (1 May 2015). "Changes in Mean Intake of Fatty Acids and Intake of Saturated and trans Fats from Potatoes: NHANES 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010". Advances in Nutrition. 6 (3): 376S–382S. doi:10.3945/an.114.007039.
- "New York City's trans fat ban really did keep people out of the hospital". Popular Science. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
- "Rise and fall of trans fat: A history of partially hydrogenated oil". latimes.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
- "Fat". Google Trends. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- "trans fat, saturated fat, fatty acid, triglyceride". books.google.com. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- "Fat". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan (August 2008). "Neither fat nor flesh". Nature. 454 (7207): 947–948. doi:10.1038/454947a.
- "Fat | substance". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
- "Lipids | Boundless Chemistry". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- "Description of various lipids | Cyberlipid". cyberlipid.gerli.com. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
- Chevreul, M. E. (1813). Sur plusieurs corps gras, et particulièrement sur leurs combinaisons avec les alcalis. Annales de Chimie, t. 88, p. 225-261. link (Gallica), link (Google).
- Chevreul, M. E. Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animale. Levrault, Paris, 1823. link.
- Menten, P. Dictionnaire de chimie: Une approche étymologique et historique. De Boeck, Bruxelles. link.
- Chevreul (1816) "Recherches chimiques sur les corps gras, et particulièrement sur leurs combinaisons avec les alcalis. Sixième mémoire. Examen des graisses d'homme, de mouton, de boeuf, de jaguar et d'oie" (Chemical researches on fatty substances, and particularly on their combinations o filippos ine kapios with alkalis. Sixth memoir. Study of human, sheep, beef, jaguar and goose fat), Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 2 : 339–372. From page 346 : "Je nommerai cholesterine, de χολη, bile, et στερεος, solide, la substance cristallisée des calculs biliares humains, ... " (I will name cholesterine – from χολη (bile) and στερεος (solid) – the crystalized substance from human gallstones ... )
- Olson RE (February 1998). "Discovery of the lipoproteins, their role in fat transport and their significance as risk factors". The Journal of Nutrition. 128 (2 Suppl): 439S–443S. PMID 9478044. doi: .
- Braconnot H (31 March 1815). "Sur la nature des corps gras.". Annales de chimie. 2 (XCIII): 225–277.
- Chevreul ME (1823). Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animale. Paris: Levrault.
- Leray C (2012). Introduction to Lipidomics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 9781466551466.
- "Wayback Machine". web.archive.org. 13 October 2017.
- Prout W (1827). "On the ultimate composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organised bodies in general.". Phil. Trans.: 355–388.
- Pelouze TJ, Gélis A (1844). "Mémoire sur l'acide butyrique". Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 10: 434.
- Zeisel, Steven H. (2012). "A Brief History of Choline". Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 61 (3): 254–258. doi:10.1159/000343120.
- Berthelot, Marcellin (1854). "Sur les combinaisons de le glycérine avec les acides et sur la synthèse des principes immédiats des graisses des animaux" [On the compounds of glycerin with acids and on the synthesis of immediate principles of animal fats]. Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 3rd series (in French). 41: 216–319. ; see "Triacétine", pp. 282–283.
- Virchow, Rudolf (1856). "Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medizin". Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde. Germany: Staatsdruckerei Frankfurt. Phlogose und Thrombose im Gefäßsystem.
- Preedy, Victor R.; Srirajaskanthan, Rajaventhan; Patel, Vinood B. (4 July 2013). Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 1. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4614-7076-2.
- Rosenbloom J, Gies WJ (1911). "Suggestion to teachers of biochemistry. I. A proposed chemical classification of lipins, with a note on the intimate relation between cholesterols and bile salts.". Biochem. Bull. 1: 51–6.
- "Read How Nutrition Careers Have Evolved Over Time". Natural Healers. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
- Bloor, W. R. (1 March 1920). "Outline of a classification of the lipoids". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 17 (6): 138–140. doi:10.3181/00379727-17-75.
- Christie WW, Han X (2010). Lipid Analysis: Isolation, Separation, Identification and Lipidomic Analysis. Bridgwater, England: The Oily Press. ISBN 9780857097866.
- Bertrand G (1923). "Projet de reforme de la nomenclature de Chimie biologique". Bulletin de la Société de Chimie Biologique. 5: 96–109.
- Pond, Caroline M. (13 August 1998). The Fats of Life. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63577-6.
- "What are fatty acids and their derivatives?" (PDF). tdx.cat.
- Ross, Robert; Neeland, Ian J.; Yamashita, Shizuya; Shai, Iris; Seidell, Jaap; Magni, Paolo; Santos, Raul D.; Arsenault, Benoit; Cuevas, Ada; Hu, Frank B.; Griffin, Bruce A.; Zambon, Alberto; Barter, Philip; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Eckel, Robert H.; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Després, Jean-Pierre (March 2020). "Waist circumference as a vital sign in clinical practice: a Consensus Statement from the IAS and ICCR Working Group on Visceral Obesity". Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 16 (3): 177–189. ISSN 1759-5037. doi:10.1038/s41574-019-0310-7.
- Conner, Robert L. (11 October 1957). "Interaction of Stigmasterol and 2,4-Dinitrophenol in the Growth of Tetrahymena piriformis". Science. 126 (3276): 698–698. doi:10.1126/science.126.3276.698-a.
- Oteng, Antwi-Boasiako; Kersten, Sander (1 May 2020). "Mechanisms of Action of trans Fatty Acids". Advances in Nutrition. 11 (3): 697–708. doi:10.1093/advances/nmz125.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1964". =Nobel Prize, Nobel Media.
- Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, et al. (November 1997). "Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (21): 1491–9. PMID 9366580. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711203372102.
- Ahrens EH Jr (Jul 1976). "The management of hyperlipidemia: whether, rather than how". Ann Intern Med. 85 (1): 87–93. PMID 779574. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-85-1-87.
- "Big fat controversy: changing opinions about saturated fats". www.aocs.org. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
- Thomas, L H; Winter, J A; Scott, R G (1 March 1983). "Concentration of 18:1 and 16:1 transunsaturated fatty acids in the adipose body tissue of decedents dying of ischaemic heart disease compared with controls: analysis by gas liquid chromatography.". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 37 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1136/jech.37.1.16.
- Thomas, L H; Winter, J A; Scott, R G (1 March 1983). "Concentration of transunsaturated fatty acids in the adipose body tissue of decedents dying of ischaemic heart disease compared with controls.". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 37 (1): 22–24. doi:10.1136/jech.37.1.22.
- Penders, Bart; Vermeulen, Niki; Parker, John (3 March 2016). Collaboration across Health Research and Medical Care: Healthy Collaboration. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-16450-0.
- "Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. The Expert Panel". Archives of Internal Medicine. 148 (1): 36–69. January 1988. PMID 3422148. doi:10.1001/archinte.148.1.36.
- Mensink, Ronald P.; Katan, Martijn B. (16 August 1990). "Effect of Dietary trans Fatty Acids on High-Density and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Subjects". New England Journal of Medicine. 323 (7): 439–445. doi:10.1056/NEJM199008163230703.
- Enig, Mary G. (1 January 2000). Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils and Cholesterol. Bethesda Press. ISBN 978-0-9678126-0-1.
- Willett, W C; Ascherio, A (May 1994). "Trans fatty acids: are the effects only marginal?". American Journal of Public Health. 84 (5): 722–724. doi:10.2105/AJPH.84.5.722.
- Gunstone, F. D. (30 June 1996). Fatty Acid and Lipid Chemistry. Springer. ISBN 978-0-8342-1342-5.
- Driskell, Judy A. (19 April 2007). Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-0850-0.
- Pond, Caroline M. (13 August 1998). The Fats of Life. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63577-6.
- Industry as a Partner for Sustainable Development: Food and Drink. UNEP/Earthprint. 2002. ISBN 978-92-807-2185-0.
- Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S (July 2001). "Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate". Diabetologia. 44 (7): 805–17. PMID 11508264. doi:10.1007/s001250100547.
- Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (WHO technical report series 916) (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 81–94. ISBN 978-92-4-120916-8.
- Boyd NF, Stone J, Vogt KN, Connelly BS, Martin LJ, Minkin S (November 2003). "Dietary fat and breast cancer risk revisited: a meta-analysis of the published literature". British Journal of Cancer. 89 (9): 1672–1685. PMC . PMID 14583769. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601314.
- Gatto LM, Sullivan DR, Samman S (May 2003). "Postprandial effects of dietary trans fatty acids on apolipoprotein(a) and cholesteryl ester transfer". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 77 (5): 1119–24. PMID 12716661. doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1119.
- Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, et al. (February 2003). "Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease". Archives of Neurology. 60 (2): 194–200. PMID 12580703. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.2.194.
- "Denmark, trans fat ban pioneer: lessons for other countries". www.who.int. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
- German JB, Dillard CJ (September 2004). "Saturated fats: what dietary intake?". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (3): 550–559. PMID 15321792. doi: .
- "Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, nutrition and allergies [NDA] related to the presence of trans fatty acids in foods and the effect on human health of the consumption of trans fatty acids | EFSA". www.efsa.europa.eu. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Gunstone, F. D. (2004). The Chemistry of Oils and Fats: Sources, Composition, Properties, and Uses. Blackwell Pub. ISBN 978-0-8493-2373-7.
- "What's in that french fry? Fat varies by city". NBC News. 12 April 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2007. AP story concerning Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A (April 2006). "High levels of industrially produced trans fat in popular fast foods". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (15): 1650–2. PMID 16611965. doi:10.1056/NEJMc052959.
- "301. Mono- and diglycerides (WHO Food Additives Series 5)". inchem.org. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
- Corwin, Rebecca L.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Maczuga, Steven A.; Graubard, Barry I. (1 January 2006). "Dietary Saturated Fat Intake Is Inversely Associated with Bone Density in Humans: Analysis of NHANES III1". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (1): 159–165. doi:10.1093/jn/136.1.159.
- "A.N.M.A.T." (PDF). www.anmat.gov.ar. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Sundram K, Karupaiah T, Hayes K (2007). "Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans" (PDF). Nutr Metab. 4: 3. PMC . PMID 17224066. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-3.
- Destaillats, Frédéric; Moulin, Julie; Bezelgues, Jean-Baptiste (2007). "Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats". Nutrition & Metabolism. 4 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-10.
- Mensink, Ronald P; Zock, Peter L; Kester, Arnold DM; Katan, Martijn B (1 May 2003). "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 77 (5): 1146–1155. doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1146.
- Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC (January 2007). "Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85 (1): 231–7. PMID 17209201. doi: .
- Eckel RH, Kris-Etherton P, Lichtenstein AH, Wylie-Rosett J, Groom A, Stitzel KF, Yin-Piazza S (February 2009). "Americans' awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (2): 288–96. PMID 19167956. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.048.
- Scherer, Lauri S. (28 December 2012). Artificial Ingredients. Greenhaven Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-0-7377-6284-6.
- Sardesai, Vishwanath (11 October 2011). Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-1818-3.
- Gunstone, F. D. (2008). Oils and fats in the food industry. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9781405171212.
- Zelman, Kathleen (May 2011). "The Great Fat Debate: A Closer Look at the Controversy—Questioning the Validity of Age-Old Dietary Guidance". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (5): 655–658. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.03.026.
- "Revealing Trans Fats". web.archive.org. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
- Conseil Supérieur de la Santé, ed. (July 2012). "acides gras trans d'origine industrielle" (PDF). Avis du Conseil Supérieur de la Santé N° 8666. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Golomb BA, Evans MA, White HL, Dimsdale JE (2012). "Trans fat consumption and aggression". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e32175. PMC . PMID 22403632. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032175.
- "נכנסה לתוקף בישראל חובת סימון שומן טראנס על גבי אריזות מזון ארוז". health.gov.il.
- "Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council", Official Journal of the European Union, 2011-11-21
- Goldman, T. R. (31 March 2016). "Health Policy Brief: Final 2015-20 Dietary Guidelines for Americans". Health Affairs. doi:10.1377/hpb20160331.683121. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- Soliman, Ghada (16 June 2018). "Dietary Cholesterol and the Lack of Evidence in Cardiovascular Disease". Nutrients. 10 (6): 780. doi:10.3390/nu10060780.
- Melnik, Bodo (July 2015). "Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update". Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology: 371. doi:10.2147/CCID.S69135.
- Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra; Bui, Alexis K. (17 June 2015). "A Fat to Forget: Trans Fat Consumption and Memory". PLOS ONE. 10 (6): e0128129. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128129.
- Sacks, Frank M.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Creager, Mark A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Stone, Neil J.; Van Horn, Linda V. (18 July 2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 136 (3). doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510.
- "Health Canada trans fat ban takes effect next year". cbc.ca. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- "WHO plan to eliminate industrially-produced trans-fatty acids from global food supply". www.who.int. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- Patel, Vinood B. (29 October 2018). The Molecular Nutrition of Fats. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-811298-4.
- Choo, Felicia (6 March 2019). "MOH to ban artificial trans fat in cookies and noodles". The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Mozaffarian, D.; Stampfer, M. J. (15 April 2010). "Removing industrial trans fat from foods". BMJ. 340 (apr15 1): c1826–c1826. doi:10.1136/bmj.c1826.
- Phillipov, Michelle (15 May 2016). Fats: A Global History. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-575-2.
- الربيعة, توفيق. "عد ١٣ شهراً (في ١-١-٢٠٢٠) سوف يتم منع الزيوت المهدرجة من جميع الأغذية نظراً لأضرارها الصحية". Twitter. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Lascu, Dana. "Legea care face mâncarea românilor mai SĂNĂTOASĂ. Adrian Wiener: Nu interzice alimente! Oprește un ABUZ criminal URIAȘ!". www.dcmedical.ro (in română). Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- "Lege cu impact major în industria alimentară și fast-food, promulgată de președinte. Producătorii, obligați să limiteze acizii grași". www.digi24.ro (in română). Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin; Giovannucci, Edward L. (March 2021). "Association between dietary fat intake and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Clinical Nutrition. 40 (3): 1060–1070. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.07.007.
- "Trans fat in food". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 13 October 2021.