Timeline of robotics

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This is a timeline of robotics.

Sample questions

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Big picture

Summary by year

Time period Development summary More details
1950s "By the 1950s engineers were developing machines to handle difficult or dangerous repetitive tasks for both defense and consumer manufacturing—particularly the booming automotive industry."[1]
1960s General Motors is one of the first manufacturers to make widespread use of robots and computers on the plant floor.[2]
1970s "With the arrival of microprocessors and microcomputing in the 1970s robots took another step forward in the march toward artificial intelligence. "[3]
1980s "By the 1980s, billions of dollars were spent by companies worldwide to automate basic tasks in their assembly plants"[4]
1990s "Although automation system deployment did dip in the 1990s, innovative technology has caused it to rebound."[4]

Summary by country

Country Development summary
South Korea
Japan
Singapore
Germany

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details Country/location
1500 BC "One of the earliest mechanisms for telling time, the Egyptian Water Clock would often use bipedal humanoid figures as the mechanism for automatically striking hour bells. This is the simplest form of hydraulic power (converting the flow of water into energy)."[5]
400 BC "Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum builds the first self-propelled flying device known as “The Pigeon” which was powered by steam and capable of short bursts of flight."[5]
320 BC "Greek philosopher Aristotle made this famous quote: “If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it... then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords.”"[6]
300 BC "300 BCE: Famous Greek philosopher Aristotle ruminates on the possibility of achieving total human equality with robots and machines by eliminating the then commonplace practice of slavery."[5]
278 BC–212 BC " Archimedes (287-212BC) did not invent robots, but he did invent many mechanical systems that are used in robotics today, as well as advancing the field of mathematics."[7]
~270 BC "An ancient Greek engineer named Ctesibus made organs and water clocks with movable figures. [2] The concept for his clock was fairly simple; a reservoir with a precise hole in the bottom would take 24 hours to empty its contents. The container was marked into 24 divisions. "[7]
1206 "In 1206 Al-Jazari created the earliest form of programmable humanoid robots which was an automaton. This automaton appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake and it had a programmable drum machine with pegs that bump into little levers that operated the percussion. Al-Jazari had many other automatons"[8]
1495 "Around 1495 Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a humanoid robot."[6] "Leonardo da Vinci designed what may be the first humanoid robot though it cannot be confirmed if the design was actually ever produced. The robot was designed to sit up, wave its arms, and move its head via a flexible neck while opening and closing its jaw"[7][5][8]
1533 "Johannes Müller von Königsberg created an automaton eagle and fly made of iron; both could fly in 1533"[8]
1645 "Blaise Pascal invented a calculating machine to help his father with taxes. The device was called the Pascaline [9] and about 50 Pascalines were built. Only a few can be found in museums such as the one on display in the Des Arts et Metiers Museum in Paris."[7]
1666 "A pocket version of the Pascaline was invented by Samuel Morland [9] which worked “without charging the memory, disturbing the mind, or exposing the operations to any uncertainty” "[7]
1709 "Jacques de Vaucanson’s most famous creation was undoubtedly "The Duck." This mechanical device could flap its wings, eat, and digest grain. Each wing contained over four hundred moving parts and even today it remains something of a mystery. The original Duck has disappeared."[7]
1737 "Jacques De Vaucanson created some of the most famous automatons in 1737. His most famous work was The Digesting Duck which was capable of imitating a real duck by flapping its wings, eat grain, digest it, and defecate and was powered by weights."[8]
1745 "Vaucanson decided to focus his mechanical mindset to more useful & practical pieces of machinery. In 1745, he became the first to invent a working automatic weaving loom. His control system eventually gave birth to the punch cards and tapes of today, and while programming the machine was a long, complex process, once done, it could be easily changed. It is this computerization that makes a machine a robot."[9]
1770s "In the 1770s, Swiss clockmaker Pierre Jacquet-Droz built a series of sophisticated robots, some of which are kept in working condition to this day. They include a breathing woman playing a harpsichord, and a boy writing a series of notes with real ink drawn from a quill""[10] Switzerland
1800 "The French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson created three rudimentary robots; two of which could play a variety of musical instruments such as the flute or trumpet, while the third was a duck that could flap its wings, move, and even mimic eating."[5]
1801 "Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented a machine (essentially a loom) that could be programmed to create designs that could be printed onto cloth or tissue."[7] " in 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard took Vaucanson’s automated loom and improved the idea by using a series of holes punched through blocks of wood to control the pattern of needles. This greatly reduced the time spent weaving and increased production output, and the loom soon had over 10,000 copies throughout France, eventually spreading into Great Britain after the end of the Napoleonic wars."[9]
1842 "The Countess of Lovelace and renowned English mathematician Ada Byron writes the first algorithm for the analytics engine. While the Countess died before it’s completion, it did serve as the first recorded precursor to digital computers."[5]
1865 "John Brainerd created the Steam Man apparently used to pull wheeled carts and more. In 1885, Frank Reade Jr. built the “Electric Man” which is moreor-less an electric version of the Steam Man"[7]
1892 Mechatronics company Stäubli is founded. Switzerland
1898 "Nikola Tesla unveils a submersible that can be controlled using radio waves. When asked if it was a remote-controlled torpedo, he replied by saying it was a “mechanical man, which will do the laborious work of the human race.”"[5]
1900 "Lyman Frank Braum introduces one of the first cybernetic humans in the form of the Tin Man from his children’s book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz."[5]
1903 "The first patents were awarded for the construction of a “printed wire” which came into use after World War 2. The concept was to replace radio tube with something less bulky"[7]
1913 "Henry Ford installs the world’s first moving conveyor belt-based assembly line in his car factory. A Model T can be assembled in 93 minutes."[6]
1917 " Remote controlled weapons and vehicles are used for the first time based on the technology developed by Nikola Tesla."[5]
1920 "Karel Capek coins the word ‘robot’ to describe machines that resemble humans in his play called Rossums Universal Robots. The play was about a society that became enslaved by the robots that once served them. This idea is now a common theme in popular culture, ie Frankenstein, Terminator, The Matrix etc."[6]
1921 "Czech writer Karel Čapek introduces the word "robot" in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). The word "robot" comes from the word "robota" (work)."[11] "The term "robot" was first used in a play called "R.U.R." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple: man creates a robot to replace him and then robot kills man!"[7]
1921 "Czech playwright Karel Capek coins the term “robot” as a way to describe automata in fiction. It comes from the Czech word “roba” which means servant or slave. The word has since evolved to encompass all forms of autonomous machinery."[5]
1927 "he science-fiction film Metropolis is released. It features a robot double of a peasant girl, Maria, which unleashes chaos in Berlin of 2026—it was the first robot depicted on film, inspiring the Art Deco look of C-3PO in Star Wars."[11] "The film Metropolis is released, featuring the robot Maria, who serves as one of the primary antagonists of the story."[5]
1929 "Makoto Nishimura designs Gakutensoku, Japanese for "learning from the laws of nature," the first robot built in Japan. It could change its facial expression and move its head and hands via an air pressure mechanism."[11]
1932 "The first true robot toy was produced in Japan. The ‘Lilliput’ was a wind-up toy which walked. It was made from tinplate and stood just 15cm tall."[6]
1937 "Alan Turing releases his paper “On Computable Numbers” which begins the computer revolution."[6]
1939 "Westinghouse creates ELEKTRO a human-like robot that could walk, talk, and smoke [4]. ELEKTRO was first unveiled at the 1939 world’s fair."[7]
1941 "Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word "robotics" to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful robot industry."[7]
1941 The volume of references to 'robot' first surpasses that of references to 'automaton'.[10]
1942 "Isaac Asimov wrote the "Three Laws of Robotics”. A zeroth law was later added (law zero below). :

A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law."[7][5] ||

1942 "The first “programmable” mechanism, a paint-sprayer, was designed by Willard Pollard and Harold Roselund for the DeVilbiss Company. (US Patent No. 2,286,571)."[7]
1943 Neural networks are introduced.[12]
1944 Wolf Robotics United States
1946 "George Devol patented a general purpose playback device for controlling machines using magnetic recordings."[7]
1946 " The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENAIC) is invented."[5]
1946 Hokuyo Automatic Co., Ltd.[13][14] Japan
1947 "On November 14, 1947, Walter Brattain had an accident while trying to study how electrons acted on the surface of a semiconductor. This accident brought about the creation of the first transistor."[7]
1948 "W. Grey Walter created his first robots; Elmer and Elsie, also known as the turtle robots. The robots were capable of finding their charging station when their battery power ran low."[7]
1948 "Norbert Wiener, a professor at M.I.T., publishes Cybernetics or "Control and Communication in the Animal', a book which describes the concept of communications and control in electronic, mechanical, and biological systems."[15]
1950 "Alan Turing proposes a test to determine if a machine truly has the power to think for itself. To pass the test a machine must be indistinguishable from a human during conversation. It has become known as the ‘Turing Test’."[6]
1950 "George Devol invented the first autonomous industrial robot UNIMATE which was capable of welding die casting onto cars on an assembly line."[5]
1951 "Raymond Goertz designed the first tele-operated articulated arm for the Atomic Energy Commission. This is generally regarded as a major milestone in force feedback (haptic) technology. (US Patent 2679940)"[7][15] France
1952 "The first NC (numerically controlled) machine is built."[15]
1952 "The late Corrado Böhm of the University of Rome was an early pioneer. In the UK, a language called Autocode was developed in 1952. "[10]
1954 "George Devol and Joe Engleberger design the first programmable robot ‘arm’. This later became the first industrial robot, completing dangerous and repetitive tasks on an assembly line at General Motors (1962)."[6][8]
1954 "In that year a driverless electric cart, made by Barrett Electronics Corporation, began pulling loads around a South Carolina grocery warehouse. Such machines, dubbed AGVs (Automatic Guided Vehicles), commonly navigate by following signal-emitting wires entrenched in concrete floors."[16]
1956 Foster-Miller[17][18]
1956 "Alan Newell and Herbert Simon create the Logic Theorist, the first "expert system". It is used to help solve difficult math problems."[15]
1956 "Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy organize a conference in Dartmouth, Massachusetts, US, which brings together the leading figures in the field of robotics and machine research. The conference coins the phrase "artificial intelligence""[15]
1956 "Squee, the electronic robot squirrel. The two phototubes or "eyes" are at the top of the steering post; the scoop which opens and closes, or "hands", is at the front."[15]
1956 "George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot company."[15]
1957 "The Soviet Union launches ‘Sputnik’, the first artificial orbiting satellite. This marks the beginning of the space race."[6] "History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first autonomous, artificial satellite was 22.8 inches in diameter and weighed only 183.9 pounds."[7]
1957 Reis Robotics[19]
1957 "Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT demonstrates one of the first practical application to computer-assisted manufacturing."[15]
1958 ". The subsequent invention of the transistor in 1947 paved the way to space-saving tubeless solid state electronics and to the integrated circuit in 1958"[10]
1959 "Researchers at MIT introduce computer-assisted manufacturing."[5]
1959 "John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky start the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)."[15]
1959 "Development of the first industrial robot by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger"[20]
1960 "Unimation is purchased by Condec Corporation and development of Unimate Robot Systems begins."[15]
1960 "American Machine and Foundry, later known as AMF Corporation, markets the first cylindrical robot, called the Versatran, designed by Harry Johnson and Veljko Milenkovic."[15]
1960 ". In 1960 a General Electric research team headed by Ralph Mosher developed "Handyman" and "Man-Mate"—two remotely operated robotic arms. "[1] United States
Early 1960s "One of the first operational, industrial robots in North America appeared in the early 1960’s in a candy factory in Kitchener, Ontario."[7]
1961 "George Devol’s invention UNIMATE is sold to General Motors and becomes the first robot in the workforce and serves to this day as the foundation for the modern robotics industry. The 60’s also saw many advancements in the power and functionality of robotic arms in general."[5]
1961 "Heinrich Ernst develops the MH-1, a computer operated mechanical hand at MIT."[15]
1961 General Motors installs installs the world’s first industrial robot used on a production line at its Ternstedt plant in Trenton, New Jersey.[2][15][4] United States
1962 "The first cylindrical robot, the Versatran from AMF" "6 Versatran robots were installed by American Machine and Foundry (AMF) at the Ford factory in Canton, USA. It was named the Versatran from the words "versatile transfer""[20]
1962 Unimation is founded. It is considered to be the world's first robotics company.[21] United States
1963 "The computer-controlled Rancho Arm is invented to help disabled patients at the California hospital Ranchos Los Amigos. It is later purchased by Stanford University for use into research on robotics and prosthetics, ushering in a new form of human-centric robots known as “cobots”."[5]
1963 "John McCarthy leaves MIT to start the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Stanford University."[15]
1964 "The IBM 360 becomes the first computer to be mass-produced."[6]
1964 "Artificial intelligence research laboratories are opened at M.I.T., Stanford Research Institute (SRI), Stanford University, and the University of Edinburgh."[7]
1965 "Carnegie Mellon establishes the Robotics Institute."[7]
1965 "Homogeneous transformations applied to robot kinematics - this remains the foundation of robotics theory today"[15]
1965 "DENDRAL is the first expert system or program designed to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts."[15]
1966 "Shakey the robot is the first general-purpose mobile robot to be able to reason about its own actions. In a Life magazine 1970 article about this “first electronic person,” Marvin Minsky is quoted saying with “certitude”: “In from three to eight years we will have a machine with the general intelligence of an average human being.”"[11]
1966 "An artificial intelligence program named ELIZA is created at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum."[15]
1967 "Richard Greenblatt writes, MacHack, a program that plays chess."[15]
1967 "Japan imports the Versatran robot from AMF (the first robot imported into Japan)."[15]
1967 "The first industrial robot in Europe, a Unimate, was installed at Metallverken, Uppsland Väsby, Sweden"[20]
1968 "Stanley Kubrick makes Arthur C. Clark's, 2001: A Space Odyssey into a movie. It features HAL, an onboard computer that develops a mind of its own."[6]
1968 "The first computer controlled walking machine was created by Mcgee and Frank at the University of South Carolina."[7]
1968 "The first manually controlled walking truck was made by R. Mosher. It could walk up to four miles an hour"[7]
1968 "SRI built “Shakey”; a mobile robot equipped with a vision system and controlled by a computer the size of a room."[7]
1968 Marvin Minsky creates his Tentacle Arm, with 12 joints which can operate independently and are powered by hydraulics.[5][22]
1968 "Kawasaki licenses hydraulic robot design from Unimation and starts production in Japan."[15]
1968 "The octopus-like wall mounted tentacle Arm is developed by Marvin Minsky."[15]
1969 "The U.S. successfully use the latest in computing, robotic and space technology to land Neil Armstrong on the moon."[6]
1969 "Victor Scheinman created the Stanford Arm, which was the first successful electrically-powered, computer-controlled robot arm. "[7] "In 1969, the Stanford Arm was developed. With six degrees of freedom, it was capable of tasks earlier robots couldn’t perform."[4] "In 1969, the Stanford Arm was developed. With six degrees of freedom, it was capable of tasks earlier robots couldn’t perform."[4][23]
1969 "WAP-1 became the first biped robot and was designed by Ichiro Kato. Air bags connected to the frame were used to stimulate artificial muscles [4] WAP-3 was designed later and could walk on flat surfaces as well as climb up and down stairs or slopes. It could also turn while walking."[7]
1969 "Hitachi (Japan) developed the world’s first vision-based fully-automatic intelligent robot that assembles objects from plan drawings" "The robot could build blocks based on information created from a direct visual image of assembly plan drawings."[20]
1969 "Unimate robots enter Japanese market" "Unimation signs a licensing agreement with Kawasaki Heavy Industries to manufacture and market Unimate robots for the Asian market. Kawasaki regarded the development and production of labor-saving machines and systems as an important mission, and became Japan's pioneer in the industrial robot field. In 1969, the company succeeded in developing the Kawasaki-Unimate 2000, the first industrial robot ever produced in Japan.Unimation signs a licensing agreement with Kawasaki Heavy Industries to manufacture and market Unimate robots for the Asian market. Kawasaki regarded the development and production of labor-saving machines and systems as an important mission, and became Japan's pioneer in the industrial robot field. In 1969, the company succeeded in developing the Kawasaki-Unimate 2000, the first industrial robot ever produced in Japan."[20] Japan
1969 "Robot vision, for mobile robot guidance, is demonstrated at the Stanford Research Institute"[20]
1969 "GM installed the first spot-welding robots at its Lordstown assembly plant" "The Unimation robots boosted productivity and allowed more than 90 percent of body welding operations to be automated vs. only 20 percent to 40 percent at traditional plants, where welding was a manual, dirty and dangerous task dominated by large jigs and fixtures"[20]
1970 "The first anthropomorphic robot, the WABOT-1, is built at Waseda University in Japan. It consisted of a limb-control system, a vision system and a conversation system."[11]
1970 " Weapons meets robotics once again with the development of terminal guidance, a radar based robotics system that helps direct missiles and explosives in-flight before they detonate, drastically increasing their destructive potential."[5]
1970 "In 1970 Stanford University produced the Stanford Cart which is designed to be a line follower but also was able to be controlled from a computer via radio link."[8]
1970 "Shakey from SRI, Menlo Park USA, can see and avoid obstacles. Shakey is introduced as the first mobile robot controlled by artificial intelligence. It is produced by SRI International."[15] "The first mobile robot capable of reasoning about its surroundings, Shakey, was built in 1970 by the Stanford Research Institute. Shakey combined multiple sensor inputs, including TV cameras, laser rangefinder, and bump sensors to navigate."[23] United States
1970 "Professor Victor Scheinman of Stanford University designs the Standard Arm. Today, its kinematic configuration remains known as the Standard Arm."[15]
1971 " The Soviet Union lands the first robotic exploration craft on Mars. It touched down on the surface and transmitted for about 17 seconds before malfunctioning."[5]
1971 "The Japanese Robot Association (JIRA, later JARA) was established" "This was the first national robot association. The Japan Robot Association was formed in 1971 as the Industrial Robot Conversazione, a voluntary organization. The Conversazione was reorganized into the Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA) in 1972, and the Association was formally incorporated in 1973."[20]
1972 "Operation Linebacker proves the efficacy of laser-guided bombs in the closing years of the Vietnam War."[5]
1972 "The first intelligent humanoid robot was built in Japan which was named as WABOT-1."[24]
1972 "The Japanese WABOT project is completed with the deployment of WABOT-1, the world’s first life-size intelligent human robot. It could walk unaided as well as grasp and transport objects with tactile sensors in its hands. It could also communicate in Japenese using a sophisticated cranial sensory array that included ears, eyes, and a mouth."[5]
1972 "Robot production lines installed in Europe" "FIAT in Italy and Nissan in Japan installed production lines of spot-welding robots."[20]
1973 "V.S. Gurfinkel, A. Shneider, E.V. Gurfinkel and colleagues at the department of motion control at the Russian Academy of Science create the first six-legged walking vehicle"[7]
1973 "Cincinnati Milacron Corporation releases the T3, (The Tomorrow Tool) the first commercially available minicomputer-controlled industrial robot (designed by Richard Hohn)."[15]
1973 "Ichiro Kato created WABOT I which was the first full-scale anthropomorphic robot in the world. It had a system for controlling limbs, vision, and conversation! It was estimated that it had the mental ability of a 18 month old child"[7]
1973 "Cincinnati Milacron released the T3, the first commercially available minicomputer-controlled industrial robot (designed by Richard Hohn)."[7]
1973 Organization Comau[25] Italy
1973 "The AI department at Edinburgh, UK, shows off Freddy II, a robot that could assemble objects automatically from a heap of parts"[15]
1973 "Hitachi (Japan) developed the automatic bolting robot for concrete pile and pole industry" "This robot was the first industrial robot with dynamic vision sensors for moving objects. It recognized bolts on a mold while it is moving and fastened/loosened the bolts in synchronization with the mold motion."[20]
1973 "First robot to have six electromechanically driven axes" "KUKA moves from using Unimate robots to developing their own robots. Their robot, the Famulus was the first robot to have six electromechanically driven axes."[20]
1974 "Intel (Integrated Electronics) produced the first batch of second-generation 8080 general purpose chips. "[7]
1974 "The robotic teacher Leachim has been invented with the ability to synthesize human speech. It is programmed with a course curriculum and tested on a class of 4th graders in the Bronx, New York."[5]
1974 "Victor Scheinman formed his own company and started marketing the Silver Arm, that was capable of assembling small parts together using touch sensors in 1974."[8]
1974 "The first minicomputer-controlled industrial robot comes to market" "The first commercially available minicomputer-controlled industrial robot was developed by Richard Hohn for Cincinnati Milacron Corporation. The robot was called the T3, The Tomorrow Tool."[20]
1974 "Hitachi (Japan) developed the first precision insertion control robot “HI-T-HAND Expert”" "This robot had a flexible wrist mechanism and a force feed-back control system. Therefore it could insert mechanical parts with a clearance of about 10 micron."[20]
1974 The first fully electric, microprocessor-controlled industrial robot, IRB 6 from ASEA" "With anthropomorphic design, its arm movement mimicked that of a human arm, with a payload of 6kg and 5 axis. The S1 controller was the first to use a intel 8 bit microprocessor. The memory capacity was 16KB. The controller had 16 digital I/O and was programmed trough 16 keys and a four digit LED display. The first model, IRB 6, was developed in 1972-1973 on assignment by the ASEA CEO Curt Nicolin and was shown for the first time at the end of August 1973. It was acquired by Magnussons in Genarp to wax and polish stainless steel tubes bent at 90° angles."[20]
1974 "The first arc welding robots go to work in Japan. In Japan, Kawasaki built on the Unimate design to create an arc-welding robot, used to fabricate their motorcycle frames. They also developed touch and force-sensing capabilities in their Hi-T-Hand robot, enabling the robot to guide pins into holes at a rate of one second per pin."[20]
1975 "Victor Schenman developed the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (Puma). It was widely used in industrial operations."[7]
1975 "The Olivetti “SIGMA” a cartesian-coordinate robot, is one of the first used in assembly applications"[20]
1975 "The MITS ALTAIR was the first 8080 chip based kit computer and is arguably the start of the personal computer. "[7]
1975 "Hitachi (Japan) developed the first sensor based arc welding robot “Mr. AROS”" "The robot is equipped with microprocessors and gap sensors to correct arc welding path by detecting precise location of workpieces"[20]
1975 "ABB developed an industrial robot with a payload up to 60 kg" "This met the demand of the automotive industry for more payload, more flexibility. The robot, called the IRB60, was first delivered to Saab in Sweden for welding car bodies."
1976 "Soft Gripper was designed by Shigeo Hirose to to wrap around an object in snake like fashion in 1976."[8]
1976 Organization (for-profit) Hyundai Wia South Korea
1976 Intelligent Actuator is founded.[26] Japan
1976 "Robot arms are used on Viking 1 and 2 space probes. Vicarm Inc. incorporates a microcomputer into the Vicarm design."[15]
1977 "The Variante Masha, a six-legged walking machine, was created at the Russian academy of Science by Dr. Devjanin, Dr. Grufinkelt, Dr. Lensky, Dr. Schneider, and colleagues."[7]
1977 "ASEA, a European robot company, offers two sizes of electric powered industrial robots. Both robots use a microcomputer controller for programming and operation."[15]
1977 "Hitachi (Japan) developed an assembly cell to assemble vacuum cleaners with 8 TV cameras and two robot arms"[20]
1978 "Shigeo Hirose created ACMVI (Oblix) robot. It had snake-like abilities. The Oblix eventually became the MOGURA robot arm used in industry."[7]
1978 "In 1978 the 4 axis robot arm SCARA, Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm, was created. It was the best used for picking up parts and placing them in another location and it was introduced to assembly lines in 1981."[8]
1978 "Using technology from Vicarm, Unimation develops the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly). The PUMA can still be found in many research labs today."[15]
1978 "Brooks Automation founded"[15]
1979 "The Stanford Cart crossed a chair-filled room without human assistance. The cart had a TV camera mounted on a rail which took pictures from multiple angles and relayed them to a computer. The computer analyzed the distance between the cart and the obstacles."[7] "The Stanford Cart built in 1970 was rebuilt by Hans Moravec by adding a more robust vision system allowing greater autonomy in 1979 These were some of the first experiments with 3D environment. mapping."[8]
1979 "Hiroshi Makino of Yamanashi University designed the Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm (SCARA) for assembly jobs in factories."[7]
1979 "The Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University is established."[15]
1979 "Sankyo and IBM market the SCARA (selective compliant articulated robot arm) developed at Yamanashi University in Japan"[15]
1979 "Nachi, Japan, developed the first motor-driven robots"
1979 "First six-axis robot with own control system RE 15 by Reis, Obernburg, Germany"[20]
1980 "Quasi-dynamic walking was first realized by WL-9DR. It used a microcomputer as the controller. It could take one step every 10 seconds. It was developed by Ichiro Kato at the Department of Mechanical Engineering School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo."[7]
1980 January Automatix[27][28] United States
1981 "First use of machine vision. At the University of Rhode Island, USA, a bin-picking robotics system demonstrated the picking of parts in random orientation and positions out of a bin."[20]
1981 "Shigeo Hirose developed Titan II. It is a quadruped which could climb stairs. Picture is of Titan III, which is a successor to Titan II."[7]
1981 "Takeo Kanade invents the first “direct drive arm”, an industrial robotic arm that combined the robotic “brain” with the mechanical manipulators in one machine."[5] "In 1981 Takeo Kanade built the direct drive arm, that was the first to have motors installed directly into the joints of the arm. This change caused this design to become faster and much more accurate than previous robotic arms."[8]
1981 Cognex is founded.[15]
1981 "GM installed “CONSIGHT”, a machine vision system" "The first production implementation of the General Motors Consight vision system at the St. Catherines, Ontario, foundry is successfully sorting up to six different castings at up to 1,400 an hour from a belt conveyor using three industrial robots in a harsh manufacturing environment. "[20]
1982 WinSystems[29] United States
1982 CRS Robotics is founded.[15] Canada
1982 Intelitek is founded. It specializes in robotic training systems for industrial robotics.[30][31] United States
1982 "Fanuc of Japan and General Motors form a joint venture: GM Fanuc. The new company is going to market robots in North America."[15]
1982 "IBM develops a programming language for robotics, AML" "AML (A Manufacturing Language), a powerful, easily used programming language was developed by IBM, USA, specifically for robotic applications. Using an IBM Personal Computer manufacturing engineers could quickly and easily create application programs."[20]
1983 Honeybee Robotics is founded. It develops advanced robotic solutions.[32][33] United States
1983 Omron Adept[34][35] United States
1983 Salt Lake City-based robotics startup Sarcos is founded. It makes robotic systems.[36][37] United States
1983 "Westinghouse issues a research report on APAS, or adaptable-programming assembly systems, a pilot project for using robots in a more flexible automated assembly line environment. The approach uses machine vision in the positioning, orienting and inspection of the component parts"[20]
1983 "Adept Technology founded."[15]
1984 "Adept, USA, introduced the AdeptOne, first direct-drive SCARA robot"[20]
1984 "Form factors were made more manageable and software refined through the development of more robust programming languages such as Robot Basic in 1984."[3]
1984 "WABOT-2 is completed. It has motor and sensory control fine enough to allow it to read and play the organ, to the point it could even accompany a human musician."[5]
1984 IEEE Robotics and Automation Society[38]
1984 Epson Robots is established. It is the robotics design and manufacturing department of Japanese corporation Seiko Epson.[39] Japan
1984 "Joseph Engelberger starts Transition Robotics, later renamed Helpmates, to develop service robots."[15]
1984 "ABB, Sweden produced the fastest assembly robot (IRB 1000)"[20]
1985 "Created by the General Robotics Corp. the RB5X was a programmable robot equipped with infrared sensors, remote audio/video transmission, bump sensors, and a voice synthesizer. It had software that could enable it to learn about its environment."[7]
1985 "Waseda Hitachi Leg-11 (WHL-11) was a biped robot developed by Hitachi Ltd. It was capable of static walking on a flat surface. It was able to turn and could take a step every 13 seconds."[7]
1985 "A four legged walking machine, Collie1, was developed by H. Miura at the University of Tokyo. The machine had 3 degrees of freedom per leg."[7]
1985 "The Melwalk3 was developed at Namiki Tsukuba Science City and was a sixlegged walking machine. "[7]
1985 Robot-assisted surgery The first robot to assist in surgery is the Arthrobot, which is developed and used for the first time in Vancouver.[40] Canada
1985 Robot-assisted surgery A robot, the Unimation Puma 200, is used to orient a needle for a brain biopsy while under CT guidance during a neurological procedure.[41]
1985 ST Robotics[42] United States
1986 "The first LEGO based educational products are put on the market and Honda launches a project to build a walking humanoid robot."[6] "In 1986 LEGO and the MIT Media Lab colaborated to bring the first LEGO based educational products to market. LEGO tc Logo was used by in the classrooms of thousands of elementary school teachers. In the same year Honda began its humanoid research and development program to create robots capable of interacting successfully with humans."[8]
1986 "LEGO and the MIT Media Lab collaborate to bring the first LEGO based educational products to market."[15]
1986 October Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics is established in Bangalore, with research focus in the areas of artificial intelligence, robotics, and control systems.[43] India
1986 "Honda begins a robot research program that's starts with the premise that the robot "should coexist and cooperate with human beings, by doing what a person cannot do and by cultivating a new dimension in mobility to ultimately benefit society.""[15]
1986 "With Unimation license terminated, Kawasaki develops and produces its own line of electric robots."[15]
1988 "The first HelpMate service robot went to work at Danbury Hospital in Connecticut. "[7]
1988 Barrett Technology[44] United States
1989 "Aquarobot, a walking robot for undersea use, was created at the Robotics Laboratory at the Ministry of Transport in Japan."[7]
1989 "Developed by Kato Corporation, the WL12RIII was the first biped walking robot which was able to walk on a terrain stabilized by trunk motion. It could walk up and down stairs and could take a single step every 0.64 seconds. "[7]
1989 " Rodney Brooks creates Ghengis, a hexapedal robot meant to traverse difficult terrain. Ghengis was modeled after organic insects, who have very limited intelligence but possess relatively incredible physical aptitude. It was notable for its cheap construction and development time, which has given rise to a trend of incremental development in robotics."[5]
1989 Motoman[45] United States
1989 "A walking robot named Genghis is unveiled by the Mobile Robots Group at MIT. It becomes known for the way it walks, popularly referred to as the "Genghis gait"."[15]
1989 "At MIT Rodney Brooks and A. M. Flynn publish the paper "Fast, Cheap and Out of Control: A Robot Invasion of the Solar System" in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. The paper changes rover research from building the one, big, expensive robot to building lots of little cheap ones. The paper also makes the idea of building a robot somewhat more accessible to the average person. Academics start to concentrate on small, smart useful robots rather than simulated people."[15]
1989 "Computer Motion founded."[15]
1989 "Barrett Technology founded"[15]
1990 "Rodney Brooks publishes “Elephants Don’t Play Chess,” proposing a new approach to AI—building intelligent systems, specifically robots, from the ground up and on the basis of ongoing physical interaction with the environment: “The world is its own best model… The trick is to sense it appropriately and often enough.”"[11] "iRobot Corporation was founded by Rodney Brooks, Colin Angle and Helen Greiner and produced domestic and military robots."[7]
1992 "Demaurex, Switzerland, sold its first Delta robot packaging application to Roland"[20]
1992 DOK-ING[46] Croatia
1992 Boston Dynamics[47] United States
1992 Robot-assisted surgery The ROBODOC is introduced. It would revolutionize orthopedic surgery by being able to assist with hip replacement surgeries.[48]
1992 "Wittmann, Austria introduced the CAN-Bus control for robots"[20]
1992 "ABB, Sweden, launched an open control system (S4)"[20]
1993 "Dante explored Mt. Erebrus in Antarctica. The 8-legged walking robot was developed at Carnegie-Mellon University. However, the mission failed when its tether broke. [4]Dante II subsequently explored Mt. Spurr in Alaska in 2004. This was a more robust version of Dante I. "[7]
1993 "In 1993 an eight legged robot was developed at Carnegie Mellon University called Dante to collect data from a harsh environment similar to what we might find on another planet. However, Dante failed to collect gases from because of a broken fiber optic cable. In 1994 Dante II, a more robust version of its predicessor, descended into the crater of Alaskan volcano Mt. Spurr and completed the mission with a success."[8]
1993 Competition BEST Robotics[49]
1993 Competition Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition[50]
1993 "Seiko Epson develops a micro robot called Monsieur, the world's smallest micro robot as certified by the Guinness Book of World Records."[15]
1993 "Sensable Technologies founded."[15]
1994 Robot-assisted surgery AESOP is introduced as the first laparoscopic camera holder to be approved by the FDA.[51] United States
1994 "Carnegie Universities eight-legged walking robot, Dante ll, successfully descends into Mt Spur to collect volcanic gas samples."[6]
1994 " John Adler invents the Cyberknife, a robotic surgery system that is subsequently cleared by the USA’s FDA. First used at Stanford university, this robot made use of robotic positioning and radio imagery to help foster ultra-fine precision in delicate medical procedures and was used for brain and spine surgeries."[5]
1994 Welltec[52][53] Denmark
1994 Marc Thorpe starts Robot Wars at Fort Mason center in San Francsico, CA.[15]
1994 "Motoman introduced the first robot control system (MRC) which provided the synchronized control of two robots"[20]
1995 Robomow is founded in Israel. It manufactures robotic lawn mowers.[54] Israel
1995 ActivMedia Robotics is founded. Later known as MobileRobots Inc, then sold to Adept and renamed "Adept Mobilerobots" it designs and manufactures autonomous robots, commercial service robots, robot software and navigation systems for robot developers and manufacturers.[55] The company is now owned by Omron Automation. [56][57] United States
1995 Automatika[58][59] United States
1995 Intuitive Surgical[60] United States
1995 Lynxmotion is founded as a manufacturer of robot kits.[61][62] United States
1995 Competition International Aerial Robotics Competition
1996 "RoboTuna was created by David Barrett at MIT. The robot was used to study how fish swim."[7] "Robotuna was a biomimetic robot that was designed to swim and resemble a blue fin tuna and built by David Barrett for his doctoral thesis at MIT in 1996."[8]
1996 "A RoboTuna (fish) is designed and built by David Barrett for his doctoral thesis at MIT." "The biomimetic robot RoboTuna was built by doctoral student David Barrett at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1996 to study how fish swim in water. RoboTuna is designed to float and to resemble a bluefin tuna."[23][15]
1996 DragonLord Enterprises, Inc. United States
1996 "Honda created the P2, which was the first major step in creating their ASIMO. The P2 was the first self-regulating, bipedal humanoid robot. "[7] "Honda's P2 humanoid robot was first shown in 1996. Standing for Prototype Model 2, P2 was an integral part of Honda's humanoid development project; over 6 feet tall, P2 was smaller than its predecessors and appeared to be more human like in its motions."[8]
1996 Halfmann Teleskoptechnik Germany
1996 Honda unveils its P2 prototype, a humanoid robot that can walk, climb stairs and carry loads.[15]
1996 "KUKA, Germany, launched the first PC-based robot control system"[20]
1997 Dinamation is founded. It focuses its activity in the field of automation of industrial handling and assembly processes.[63] Spain
1997 "On May 11, a computer built by IBM known as Deep Blue beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov. The first Robocup tournament is held in Japan. The goal of Robocup is to have a fully automated team of robots beat the worlds best soccer team by the year 2050."[6] "IBM's deep blue supercomputer beat the champion Gary Kasparov at a chess match. This represented the first time a machine beat a grand champion chess player. "[7]
1997 Competition The first RoboCup games are held in Nagoya, with three competition categories: computer simulation, small robots, and midsize robots.[64] Japan
1997 Bluefin Robotics.[65] United States
1997 " The robot rover Sojourner is launched to Mars. It was only expected to operate for a week but managed to explore the planet for over three months before losing contact with Earth. It was able to gather environmental data and conduct several scientific experiments, the results of which were transmitted back to NASA. The onboard computer allowed it to react to unplanned events and obstacles, even with minimal data."[5]
1997 "NASA's PathFinder landed on Mars. The wheeled robotic rover sent images and data about Mars back to Earth."[7] "In 1997 The Pathfinder Mission landed on Mars. Its robotic rover Sojourner, rolled down a ramp and onto Martian soil in early July. It continued to broadcast data from the Martian surface until September."[8]
1997 "IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeated chess champion Garry Kasparov, heralding a landmark achievement in robotic AI’s ability to plan and react."[5]
1997 "Honda created the P3, the second major step in creating their ASIMO. The P3 was Honda’s first completely autonomous humanoid robot."[7]
1997 Robotics Design Inc[66] Canada
1997 Competition Federation of International Robot-soccer Association[67]
1997 "Computer programs, called "web bots", become widely used on the web to delve for information."[15]
1998 robot-head.[68]
1998 Robot-assisted surgery ZEUS is introduced commercially, starting the idea of telerobotics or telepresence surgery where the surgeon is at a distance from the robot on a console and operates on the patient.[69]
1998 "In 1998 Sony began providing researchers with programmable AIBOs for a new competition category; this gave teams a standard reliable prebuilt hardware platform for software experimentation."[16]
1998 "LEGO launches its first Robotics Inventions System."[6]
1998 "Dr. Cynthia created Kismet, a robotic creature that interacted emotionally with people."[6]
1998 "LEGO released their MINDSTORMS robotic development product line, which is a system for inventing robots using a modular design and LEGO plastic bricks."[7]
1998 "Campbell Aird was fitted with the first bionic arm called the Edinburg Modular Arm System (EMAS). "[7]
1998 Ecovacs Robotics[70][71] China
1998 Vecna Technologies is founded. It delivers automated material handling, hybrid fulfillment, and workflow optimization solutions featuring self-driving vehicles.[72]
1998 Competition Botball
1998 "LEGO releases their first Robotics Invention SystemTM 1.0. LEGO names the product line MINDSTORMS after Seymour Papert's seminal work of 1980."[15]
1998 "Scottish hotel owner Campbell Aird is fitted with the world's first bionic arm."[15]
1998 "Güdel, Switzerland, launched the “roboLoop” system, the only curved-track gantry and transfer system"[20]
1998 "ABB, Sweden, developed the FlexPicker, the world’s fastest picking robot based on the delta robot developed by Reymond Clavel, Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL)"[20]
1998 "Reis Robotics launches the 5. robot control generation ROBOTstar V, with one of the shortest interpolation cycle times for robot controls"[20]
1998–2004 Alice mobile robot Switzerland
1999 "Sony releases the first version of AIBO, a robotic dog with the ability to learn, entertain and communicate with its owner. More advanced versions have followed."[6] "Sony released the first Aibo robotic dog. "[7][5]
1999 "Mitsubishi created a robot fish. The intention was to create a robotic version of an extinct species of fish."[7]
1999 "Personal Robots released the Cye robot. It performed a variety of household chores, such as delivering mail, carrying dishes, and vacuuming. It was created by Probotics Inc."[7][68]
1999 Fastbrick Robotics[73] Australia
1999 "May, Sony builds Aibo, K9 the next generation. One of the first robots intended for the consumer market. It reacts on sounds and has some sort of preprogrammed behavior. It sells out within 20 minutes of going on sale."[15]
1999 "Reis introduces integrated laser beam guiding within the robot arm"[20]
1999 "First remote diagnosis for robots via Internet by KUKA, Germany"[20]
2000 April 30 Siasun Robotics is founded. It is one of the largest robotics manufacturers in China.[74][75] China
2000 "MIT’s Cynthia Breazeal develops Kismet, a robot that could recognize and simulate emotions."[76]
2000 "Honda's ASIMO robot, an artificially intelligent humanoid robot, is able to walk as fast as a human, delivering trays to customers in a restaurant setting."[76] "Honda debuts ASIMO, the next generation in its series of humanoid robots."[6]
2000 "Sony unveiled the Sony Dream Robots (SDR) at Robodex. SDR was able to recognize 10 different faces, expresses emotion through speech and body language, and can walk on flat as well as irregular surfaces. Image of QRIO"[7]
2000 White Box Robotics[77] Canada
2000 Competition BattleBots[78] United States
2000 Robot-assisted surgery The da Vinci Surgical System obtains FDA approval for general laparscopic procedures and becomes the first operative surgical robot in the United States.[79] United States
2000 "October, The UN estimates that there are 742,500 industrial robots in use worldwide. More than half of these are being used in Japan."[15]
2000–2010 Approximately 5.6 million manufacturing jobs are lost in the United States, 85% of them as a result of automation and technological change.[68]
2001 "iRobot Packbots searched through the rubble of the world Trade Center. Subsequent versions of the Packbot robots are used in Afghanistan and Iraq."[7]
2001 Universal Robotics[80] United States
2001 Perrone Robotics[81] United States
2001 SSRMS[68]
2001 "MD Robotics of Canada built the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). It was successfully launched and worked to assemble the International Space Station."[7] Canada
2001 "Great leaps are made in aerospace robotics: Canadarm 2 is launched and attached to the International Space Station. Heralded as the first “smart” part of the station, it plays a key role in the maintenance of the station. Furthermore, the first autonomous flying robot, known as the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Global Hawk, makes a 22 hour non-stop flight from California across the Pacific Ocean and the Eurasian supercontinent to land in Edinburgh, Scotland."[5]
2001 MetraLabs GmbH[82] Germany
2001 Anybots[83][84] United States
2001 Energid Technologies[85] United States
2001 "LEGO releases the MINDSTORMS Ultimate Builder's Set"[15]
2001 "Built by MD Robotics of Canada, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is successfully launched into orbit and begins operations to complete assembly of International Space Station."[15]
2001 "August, the FDA clears the CyberKnife to treat tumors anywhere in the body."[15]
2002 Competition ABU Robocon[86]
2002 Robotnik Automation[87][88] Spain
2002 Active Robots[89][90] United Kingdom
2002 Competition Robo One[91][92] Japan
2002 "Honda created the Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO). It is intended to be a personal assistant. It recognizes its owner's face, voice, and name. Can read email and is capable of streaming video from its camera to a PC"[7] Japan
2002 "iRobot released the first generation of Roomba robotic vacuum cleaners. "[7]
2002 TOSY Robotics is founded.[93] Vietnam
2003 Amazon Robotics is founded.[94][95] United States
2003 "As part of their mission to explore Mars, NASA launched twin robotic rovers on June 10 and July 7, 2003 called Spirit and Sojourner"[7] "On January 3rd and 24th the Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on the surface of Mars. Launched in 2003, the two robots will drive many times the distance originally expected, and are still operating."[8] United States
2003 "RobotShop Distribution Inc. was founded to provide today’s society with domestic and professional robot technology that can help increase the pleasure, knowledge liberty and security of individuals."[7][96]
2003 Pioria Robotics is founded. It focuses on integrating sensors and processors to form intelligent embedded solutions for various applications.[97] United States
2003 September 29 Nabtesco is founded. It produces industrial robot parts.[98] Japan
2003 Competition Defcon Robot Contest[99]
2003 "Epson unveils the Monsieur II-P in April 2003."[15]
2003 "Robocoaster, the first entertainment robot based on an articulated robot by KUKA, Germany"[20]
2004 Competition RoboGames launches. It is recognized as the world's largest robotics competition.[100] United States
2004 March 13 Competition DARPA Grand Challenge launches as a driverless car competition in the Mojave Desert region of the United States.[101]
2004 June 24 Japanese robotics company Cyberdyne Inc. is founded.[102][103] Japan
2004 Competition World Robot Olympiad
2004 "Epsom release the smallest known robot, standing 7cm high and weighing just 10 grams. The robot helicopter is intended to be used as a ‘flying camera’ during natural disasters."[6]
2004 "Motoman, Japan, introduced the improved robot control system (NX100) which provided the synchronized control of four robots, up to 38 axis"[20]
2005 "Researchers at Cornell University build the first self-replicating robot. Each ‘robot’ is made up of a small tower of computerized cubes which link together through the use of magnets."[6][68] United States
2005 TOPIO begins development by TOSY. Vietnam
2005 "The Korean Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), created HUBO, and claims it is the smartest mobile robot in the world. This robot is linked to a computer via a high-speed wireless connection; the computer does all of the thinking for the robot."[7] South Korea
2005 Bossa Nova Robotics[104] United States
2005 Cornell University creates self-replicating robots.[7] United States
2005 Honda introduces an updated version of ASIMO that has new behaviors and capabilities.[8] Japan
2005 Universal Robots is founded in Denmark. It manufactures small flexible industrial collaborative robot arms.[105] Denmark
2005 Robot-assisted surgery A surgical technique is documented in canine and cadaveric models called the transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for the da Vinci robot surgical system as it is the only FDA-approved robot to perform head and neck surgery.[106][107] United States
2005 " Self-driving cars become more and more possible, though they are not yet safe for road testing."[5]
2005 Ekso Bionics[108][109] United States
2005 Neato Robotics[110][111] United States
2005 OLogic[112] United States
2006 January JTEKT is founded. Based in Osaka, it produces machine tools.[113][114] Japan
2006 Late year Willow Garage is founded to accelerate the development of non-military robotics and advance open source robotics software.[115] United States
2006 "A 4-legged robot called Starfish that was capable of of self modeling and learning to walk after having been damaged was created at Cornell University in 2006."[8]
2006 ISEE (company)[116]
2006 February Robot as a service The initial design and implementation of applying service-oriented computing in embedded systems and robots is presented in the 49th IFIP 10.4 Workgroups meeting.[117]
2006 ReconRobotics, Inc. United States
2006 Robot Galaxy is founded. It is a mallbased retail and entertainment company that allows children to build their own personalized robots.[118] United States
2006 "With the first systems realized in 2006, Reis Robotics became market leader for photovoltaic module production lines"[20]
2006 "Motoman, Japan, launched human sized single armed (7 axis) and dual armed robot (13 axis) with all of the supply cables hidden in the robot arm"[20]
2006 "Comau, Italy, introduced the first Wireless Teach Pendant (WiTP)"[20]
2007 August Robot-assisted surgery Dr. Sijo Parekattil of the Robotics Institute and Center for Urology (Winter Haven Hospital and University of Florida) performs the first robotic-assisted microsurgery procedure denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic testicular pain.[119] United States
2007 VGo Communications[120][121] United States
2007 Competition VEX Robotics Competition[122]
2007 "KUKA, Germany, launched the first long range robot and heavy duty robot with a payload of 1,000 kg"[20]
2007 "Motoman, Japan, launched super speed arc welding robots which reduces cycle times by 15%, the fastest welding robots in existence in 2007"[20]
2008 "After being first introduced in 2002, the popular Roomba robotic vacuum cleaner has sold over 2.5 million units, proving that there is a strong demand for this type of domestic robotic technology."[6]
2008 February Robot-assisted surgery Dr. Mohan S. Gundeti of the University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital performs the first robotic pediatric neurogenic bladder reconstruction.[123] United States
2008 May 12 Robot-assisted surgery The first image-guided MR-compatible robotic neurosurgical procedure is performed at University of Calgary by Dr. Garnette Sutherland using the NeuroArm.[124][125] Canada
2008 June Robot-assisted surgery The German Aerospace Centre (DLR) presents a robotic system for minimally invasive surgery, the MiroSurge.[126] Germany
2008 Robai Corporation is founded. Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it develops lightweight robotic systems.[127] United States
2008 Rethink Robotics[128][129] United States
2008 "FANUC, Japan, launched a new heavy duty robot with a payload of almost 1,200kg"[20]
2009 Dexter Industries is founded. It is an educational robotics company that develops robot kits aimed at making programming accessible for users.[130][131] United States
2009 Harvest Automation[132][133] United States
2009 Canadian company Titan Meical Inc. announces its four-armed manipulator system, the Amadeus, later called SPORT.[134] Canada
2009 3D Robotics is founded. It operates drone technology.[135] United States
2009 "Yaskawa Motoman, Japan, introduced the improved robot control system (DX100) which provided the fully synchronized control of eight robots, up to 72 axis. I/O devices and communication protocols. Dynamic interference zones protect robot arm and provide advanced collision avoidance."[20]
2010 September 10 ispace (Japanese company)[136][137] Japan
2010 September Robot-assisted surgery The Eindhoven University of Technology announces the development of the Sofie surgical system, the first surgical robot to employ force feedback.[134] Netherlands
2010 September Robot-assisted surgery The first robotic operation at the femoral vasculature is performed at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana by a team led by Borut Geršak.[138][139] Slovenia
2010 Turing Robot[140] China
2010 Sphero[141][142] United States
2011 "Robonaut-2 is launched to the International Space Station and becomes the first humanoid robot in space. It currently serves as a training tool for roboticists in space, though is currently being upgraded to help astronauts complete dangerous, out of station spacewalks."[5][143]
2011 Double Robotics[144][145] United States
2011 September Formlabs[146] United States
2012 Sastra Robotics[147] India
2012 Wonder Workshop[148][149] United States
2012 Redwood Robotics[150] United States
2013 Hanson Robotics[151][152] United States
2013 September 1 Lily Robotics is founded. Based in the San Francisco Bay Area it produces flying cameras.[153][154] United States
2013 Dash Robotics, Inc is founded. It develops app-controlled robots.[155][156] United States
2014 Autonomous driving software company Oxbotica is founded in Oxford, England.[157][158] United Kingdom
2014 July Starship Technologies is founded by Skype co-founders, Ahti Heinla and Janus Friis. It develops small self-driving robotic delivery vehicles.[159] United States
2014 (May 13) Neuron Robotics is founded. Based in Worcester, Massachusetts, it develops a robot application that combines scripting and device management with powerful control and processing features.[160] United States
2015 Dobot is founded. Based in Shenzhen, it specializes in development and upgrading of lightweight desktop robotic arm solutions.[161] China
2015 CloudMinds is founded as a First Cloud Robots services company. Based in Santa Clara, California, it develops an ecosystem to support cloud connected smart machines.[162][163] China
2015 Genrobotics is founded. Based in Kerala, it specializes in powered exoskeletons and human-controlled robotic systems.[164][165] India
2015 Moley Robotics is founded. It designs robotic kitchens.[166] United Kingdom
2015 September Donecle is founded. Located in Labege, France. It develops 100% automated UAVs with advanced image analysis algorithms to inspect aircraft.[167][168] France
2016 Starsky Robotics[169][170] United States
2017 "The robot Sophia is granted Suadi Arabian citizenship. It becomes the first robot to be recognized with a gender identity and nationality. This raises several ethical problems, such as whether or not the deliberate shut-down of Sophia would be considered murder."[5] Saudi Arabia
2017 RoboChef restaurant in Tehran, Iran becomes the first robotic and ‘waiterless’ restaurant of the Middle East.[171][172][173] Iran
2018 April 13 Swift Xi Japan
2019 "Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania create millions of nanobots over the span of a few weeks using technology from semiconductors. They are small enough to be injected into the human body and controlled remotely."[5] United States
2019 June Organization Clearpath Robotics Canada
2030 " 2030 second-generation robots with trainable mouselike minds may become possible."[16]
2040 "By 2040 computing power should make third-generation robots with monkeylike minds possible."[16]

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References

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